This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Photosynthesis: The Emergence And Early Evolution Of Biological Carbon Fixation.

1097 words - 4 pages

Introduction
As the world’s population increases, availing adequate food for the population will be a challenge due to need to improve crop cultivation, production of fertilizer, and agricultural yields (Berg et al, 2010). However, carbon fixation is an essential limitation that affects crop yields because plants rely on converting carbon (IV) oxide into biologically functional molecules (Berg et al, 2010). Through various carbon fixation pathways, green plants, algae, and certain bacteria are able to convert inorganic carbon into organic compounds useful to all living organisms on earth (Aresta and Wiley, 2010).
Hypothesis
Photosynthesis is the main means green plants use to fix carbon dioxide in the environment, but it is unfortunate that it seldom suffices the carbon needs of living organisms.
Results and Evidence
However, scholars have discovered various pathways of carbon fixation in green plants, and intensified scientific research on bacteria and other living organisms. Since carbon fixation also occurs in certain bacteria and archaea, several experiments were conducted to establish a practical biological progression of carbon fixation, which led to discovery of Acetyl-CoA pathway (Lengeler, Drews and Schlegel, 1999). This is a pathway common among bacteria and archaea, and in this non-cyclic pathway, hydrogen is utilized as an electron donor while carbon dioxide remains an electron receiver (Lengeler, Drews and Schlegel, 1999). When carbon dioxide receives an electron, it is reduced to carbon monoxide and finally to acetyl-CoA (Aresta and Wiley, 2010). This process is catalyzed by two enzymes CO Dehydrogenese and acetyl-CoA synthase with the former converting carbon dioxide to CO while the latter combining CO with methyl group to produce acetyl CoA (Lengeler, Drews and Schlegel, 1999).
A practical biochemical progression of carbon fixation is the process of Acetogenesis and the Wood-Ljungdahl Pathway of CO2 Fixation (Pierce et al, 2008). The pathway is a type of systematic process and involved a biochemical condensation of carbon units into carbon compounds, which intrigued many scientists in the world (Braakman and Smith, 2012).
Acetogens are anaerobic bacteria that utilize the Wood Ljungdahl Pathway as the main mechanism for conversion to acetyl-CoA and cell carbon from carbon dioxide, and conservation of energy (Braakman and Smith, 2012). The acetogens are unique for their production of acetate, a carbon dioxide reducing fermentation product to facilitate the process of carbon fixation.
Progression of this biochemical process began with the scientific discovery of a bacterium, clostridium aceticum, which scientists claimed grew by transforming carbon dioxide and hydrogen gas into acetic acid. However, loss of this bacterium was replaced by Clostridium thermoacetica, which became the model bacterium for further research (Pierce et al, 2008). However, the discovery of homoacetogenic fermentation of glucose encouraged...

Find Another Essay On Photosynthesis: The Emergence and Early Evolution of Biological Carbon-Fixation.

The Stages of Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis

768 words - 3 pages ). The waste products of cellular respiration are CO2 and H2O that are the same incrediants used in photosynthesis. Plants store chemical energy by photosynthese and then harvest this energy via cellular respiration. Photosynthesis occurs each time the sun’s light reaches the lives of a plant. The chemical ingrediants for photosynthesis are carbon dioxide (CO2), a gas that passes from the air into a plant via tiny pores, and water (H20), which

Photosynthesis and the Vital Role of Chlorophyll

1626 words - 7 pages Our world is filled with beautiful plants of all different colours. Green is clearly the most prominent colour, and we know that this is due to the presence of chlorophyll. We have also learnt that photosynthesis is a vital process that occurs in order to create glucose and oxygen, by transforming carbon dioxide and water in the presence of light energy. Chlorophyll is vital for this process due to the fact that the light energy which allows for

The Emergence and Popularity of Reality TV

2280 words - 9 pages 1. Introduction The emergence and soon popularity of reality TV in some degree demonstrates the huge market of selling “real experience” through exposing “realities” of privacy, relationship between players, etc. (Deery 2004 in TV program area.). However, reality TV may not be intrinsically “real” though almost all involved players are unprofessional actors and programs are usually highly inscribed. Players are actually selected carefully (e.g

The Emergence and Development of Association Football

2667 words - 11 pages The Emergence and Development of Association Football Football has come a long way and has gone through various changes in order to develop into the popular game we know today. Football has developed into the most popular and diffused sport in the world, and has gone from being a game to also a business with commercial success being of uppermost importance. There have been reports made by various sources suggesting

THE EMERGENCE AND DEVELOPMENT OF ASSOCIATION FOOTBALL

2252 words - 9 pages Football has come a long way and has gone through various changes in order to develop into the popular game we know today. Football has developed into the most popular and diffused sport in the world, and has gone from being a game to also a business with commercial success being of uppermost importance. There have been reports made by various sources suggesting that football has ancient origins and that it was played in some

The Process of Photosynthesis

1525 words - 7 pages “Sunlight plays a much larger role in our sustenance than we may expect all the food we eat and all the fossil fuel we use is a product of photosynthesis, which is the process that converts energy in sunlight to chemical forms of energy that can be used by biological systems” (Vermaas). This quote shows that photosynthesis is the most essential part of the exchange between humans and plants because it produces all the resources we need. When we

The Process of Photosynthesis

2904 words - 12 pages The Process of Photosynthesis Missing Images Plants are one of the many wonders of the world. They are considered autotrophs; they do not rely on outside sources for their food. They create their own food by the process of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is when green plants and certain other organisms use light energy to change carbon dioxide and water into the glucose. In so doing, photosynthesis provides the basic energy source for

The Process of Photosynthesis

1237 words - 5 pages Photosynthesis is the process undergone by plants consisting of a series of chemical reactions that require four factors; water, carbon dioxide, radiant energy and temperature using chlorophyll molecules to trap radiant energy from the sun resulting in the making of glucose and oxygen as bi-products. The process of photosynthesis provides plants with the food and energy they need to grow. Plants that produce their own food are called

The Emergence of Solidarity

579 words - 2 pages Yes, the Soviet grip on Eastern Europe was complete. It was not until the emergence of ‘solidarity’, which became the first ‘mass’ movement against soviet communism that actually challenged the system effectively. By the early nineteen eighties solidarity had more than nine million members, that was over a third of the Polish workforce and in a survey at the time ninety five percent of poles said they trusted solidarity. Solidarity also had the

The Emergence of Photojournalism

1201 words - 5 pages newsworthy photographs were exhibited in European galleries for the world to view and were later copied in limited numbers and distributed globally” (Wanke). Yet most information available points to the early 1920’s as being the proper beginning for modern photojournalism. Instructor Ross Collins of North Dakota State University, states that “modern photojournalism took place in 1925, in Germany. The event was the invention of the first 35 mm

Evolution of the Haunted House in Early and Modern Gothic Novels

959 words - 4 pages Evolution of a Haunted House: The use of setting in early and modern gothic novels The setting for a novel plays a big part in how the story and its characters relate to the reader. This paper will examine how setting in gothic literature, plays an important role in the telling of a story by using Horace Walpole’s The Castle of Otranto and Shirley Jackson’s The House on Haunted Hill as examples. During the eighteenth century, the Romantic

Similar Essays

Biological Processes And Catalysts For The Process Of Nitrogen Fixation

2025 words - 8 pages in the biosphere is required in order to perform the needed protein synthesis.8,9,15 The term of nitrogen fixation is no longer solely limited to biological systems and can now be defined more generally as the reduction of molecular dinitrogen to ammonia.15 Nitrogen fixation in organisms began to appear late in evolutionary development because it was thought that the earth had possessed ammonia as a main aspect and component in the atmosphere

Examining Evolution From The Perspective Of Biological And Cultural Anthropology

988 words - 4 pages are four sub-fields: Biological, Cultural, Linguistic, and Archaeological. Each of these sub-fields can be beneficial to study the theory of evolution, and all of the sub-fields are important in their own respect. However, the biological and cultural fields are, perhaps, more significant than the others regarding evolution. Evolution can be defined differently within each sub-field of anthropology. However, biological anthropology is defined as

Evolution Of The English Language And The Emergence Of “World Englishes”

1231 words - 5 pages Evolution of the English Language and the Emergence of “World Englishes” As technology is bringing the world closer together, increasing the contact between peoples of different languages and cultures, the English language has established itself as the tool for communication, becoming the lingua franca of today’s globalized society. This role that English has taken can be traced back to a unique evolutionary history that should be understood

Biological Aspect Of Early Childhood Essay

1634 words - 7 pages The transitional life span following toddlerhood is early childhood. Early childhood begins at the age of 4 years old to 6 years old. During the early childhood stage young children become very physically active, their language become more complex, and the evolution of imaginative and elaborate nature of play occurs. Young children at the early childhood stage also begin preschool. According to Piaget, a child at the early childhood begins to