We report the community of thermophilic bacteria cultivated from Tanjung Sakti Hot Spring in South Sumatera Indonesia that has temperature 80 – 91 0C and pH 7 – 8. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the 16 sequences of 16S rRNA gene fragments obtained from the community clustered within four distinct genera as Anoxybacillus, Geobacillus, Brevibacillus, and Bacillus. Two sequences that have 96% similarity with data sequences in GenBank, are potentially as novel species/sub species.
Hot spring is a unique area that characterized by high temperature and has a great diversity of natural environments. Understanding of thermophilic microbial diversity has opened up a lot of information about microbial interactions with the environment. The involvement of microbes in geochemical cycles began uncovered by taking models and hipertermofilik thermophilic microbes that that have been believed to be the creature's early life (Reysenbach and Cady, 2001). Thermophilic microbial species diversities are found in many domains Bacteria and Archaea (Yohandini, et al. 2008, Aditiawati, et al., 2009). These microbes have the ability to use a broad range of nutrients which can live phototrophic and chemotrophic, autotrophic and heterotrophic, aerobiosis and anaerobiosis, chemolitotrophic and chemoorganotrophic (Brock, 2004)
Thermophilic microbial diversity provides an overview the enormous potential that can be utilized for various purposes. Thermophilic microbes currently intensively studied for reasons of development of basic research and biotechnology applications. In addition, a study of thermophilic microbes led to the discovery of new species (Kozina, et al, 2010; Zhang, et al, 2010). Knowledge of microbial diversity provides the opportunity to: 1) explore knowledge about strategies and restrictions of life, 2) understand the role for the sustainability of the biosphere as an actor in the biogeochemical cycles of the Earth, 3) be used as an indicator of environmental change, 4) serve as a model for understanding the principles of ecology and evolution, 5) has a high-value resource (Madigan et al., 2000).
Thermophilic and extreme thermophilic microbes have potential as sources of unique enzymes and have been used extensively in industry since it has many advantages. Thermophilic microbes can produce heat-resistant enzymes (thermozyme) and has optimum activity at high temperatures. Such property is required by the enzyme-based industries, due to lower production costs, enhance productivity, and avoid contamination (Vielle and Zeikus, 2001).
Bacterial diversity in a community can be studied through some approaches. The researchers believe that the traditional approach has many limitations in the introduction of a diversity of bacterial communities in their natural habitat. Very small size of bacteria and bacterial similar appearance makes it difficult to distinguish species microscopically. In addition, the lack of variation in the bacterial morphology causes...