Physics, Steel Essay

809 words - 4 pages

Maraging steels of different compositions have been prepared by means of induction furnace electro slag remelting technique using titanium and chromium instead of cobalt which is a high expensive strategic element, also nickel content was reduced to 10-13%. Mass attenuation coefficients, half value layers and effective atomic numbers have been determined for the prepared samples at photon energies 238, 583, 661, 911, 1173, 1332 and 2614keV. The results are compared with the corresponding theoretical calculations. In addition, the hardness has been determined for the investigated steels. High nitrogen free nickel steel and carbon steel samples have been also investigated for the sake of ...view middle of the document...

Maraging steels have high strength, high toughness, and good machining properties that are used in many commercial industries and military. The good combination of high strength and toughness of those maraging steels is achieved by the formation of a high number density of uniformly dispersed fine inter-metallic precipitates in a Ni-rich martensitic matrix. They are formed during ageing in the temperature range between 400 and 600oC after the steels had been solution annealed in the austenitic phase and air cooled which results in a martensitic microstructure. Over the past half-century, two major types of maraging steels have been developed, the 18Ni maraging steels and the cobalt-free maraging steels. The Standard maraging steels contain 18% Ni, 8% Co, 5% Mo and 0.4% Ti. But Ni, Co and Mo are very expensive strategic alloying elements as cobalt reaches to levels as high as 8 to 13%. This keeps the steels rather expensive, preventing wider selection and application, but with maximum strength levels reaching 2400 MPa, accompanied by good toughness and ductility. Therefore, developing cobalt-free maraging steel with reduced quantities of expensive alloying elements to lower the production cost has been an important direction of maraging steels research. Over the past two decades, enormous advances have been achieved in the development of cobalt-free maraging steels to high strength levels with Ni and Ti as the major precipitation hardening phase in cobalt-free maraging steels.
To overcome this problem, titanium was used as one of the...

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