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Physiology Notes: Various Systems Essay

1196 words - 5 pages

The Integumentary system is an organ system composed of the skin, hair, glands and the subcutaneous tissue. During the last trimester of pregnancy, the baby develops vernix, which protects it from extreme temperatures, keeping it hydrated thus maintaining optimal skin conditions. Subcutaneous fascia, which is a connective tissue, runs continuously across the entire body between the deep facial investment and other specialized structures of the body. During puberty, the skin develops pimples or acne as a result of a sharp increase in androgen hormone. Higher levels of testosterone in males result in more severe acne as compared to females. Frosting occurs as a result of the skin's exposure to freezing temperatures for long periods. Cold urticaria is a condition that causes itching and redness of the skin and mostly affects individuals who are allergic to cold. As age advances, the skin dries up losing its elasticity leading to cracks and wrinkle formation. Applying lotions and creams can treat this condition. Lotion application is not a permanent solution to wrinkles formation. As one ages, the rate of cell replacement as compared to cell death is low. Old skin experiences slow and low cell division rendering the inner dermis layer fragile and thinner. Skin healing also becomes slow making it more venerable to injury and damage. The deeper layers supporting the skin become loose making the skin lose elasticity in that it cannot spring back to its original shape.

The human skeletal structure has 206 bones. There are two unique characteristics that distinguish this structure from any other skeleton; one is the opposite thumb on every hand and the second is the manner in which the skeleton is usually in an erect position. The bones can be categorized into appendicular and the axial skeletons. Ossification is the bone growth process. The process involves replacement of cartilage by a bone matrix. Intramembranous ossification is the direct process of laying down of bone into primitive connective tissue. This characteristic formation happens in long bones formation or the osteoarthritic ossification in the synovial cartilage. Though not common, osteoarthritis ossification commonly occurs in fractured long bones. Osteoporosis is a condition where bones become thin, weak and brittle. They lose their density making them slump back. A major cause of this condition is a deficiency in calcium and phosphate, which are vital in developing strong and healthy bones. This can also be as a result of long periods of bed rest. Women are most likely to be diagnosed with this condition due to changes in hormone level especially during menopause. For men decrease in testosterone causes osteoporosis at the age of fifty.

Muscular system has hundreds of muscles of various size and shapes that perform different functions. Muscle growth is a complex molecular biological process that involves the interplay of numerous cellular and growth...

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