Physiology Of Periodontal And Dental Problems

1552 words - 6 pages

Accumulation of inflammatory cells and their products which then leads to deterioration of the bone component. The terms that are known to promote osteoclasts recruitments, activation, and differentiation are known as OPGL and ODF; which are abundant sites of inflammation. RANKL and TNF may play a role together in tissue dissolution in inflammatory bone diseases. TNF is known to detect two receptors, TNFr1 which promotes osteoclastogenesis and TNFr2 which is inhibitory. Prevention of inflammatory bone osteolysis is possible due to the fact that since TNF is plentiful in inflamed bone sites and has an essential part in progression of the disease, by knowing the molecular mechanisms by which inflammatory cytokine accelerates RANK-induced osteoclastogenesis. This study is focused on the fact that TNF regulates FANK/RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. RANKL and TNF together induce expression and recruitment of TRAF2, TRAF6, c-Src, and MEKK-1. All these events lead to TNFr1-dependent activation of NF-kB, ERK, and c-Jun/AP-1, which is the induction of RANK and osteoclastogenesis.
The results were as follow, levels of TRAF2, TRAF6, and MEKK1 increased in response to treatment of precursor cells with osteoclastic agents such as RANKL, TNF, IL-1, and lipopolysaccharide. Data also supported that TRAF2 was lower than TRAF6. TNF activates and mobilizes c-Src, and that the expression of tyrosine kinase is important in RANKL-generated osteoclasts. Basal osteoclasts formation by RANKL is decreased in the lack of TNFr1 therefore endogenous expression of this receptor is important to maintain higher level of osteoclastic pool. In conclusion, overlapping signaling mechanisms of RANKL and TNF lead to osteoclastogenesis and therefore mediate severe bone resorption. However TNFr-1 is important for basal RANK expression/signaling and also for cytokine-enhances phase of osteoclastogenesis.
Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB (RANK) ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) are the important regulators of osteoclast differentiation. RANKL is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) related cytokines by which differentiation and activation of osteoclast is triggered. RANKL’s receptor is RANK therefore the binding stimulates osteoclast precursors to differentiate into osteoclasts and trigger mature osteoclasts to reabsorb bone. At the level of peripheral blood, studies have proven that differences in osteoclast recruitment exist. For example, patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and psoriatic arthritis, peripheral blood mononuclear cells demonstrate an increase in the formation of osteoclast and bone resorption activity as compared with non-osteoporotic postmenopausal and healthy controls. M-CSF and RANKL was reported higher in women and arthritis patients. In addition, there was an increase in M-CSF and RANKL was also higher in cancer patients with bone metastases compared with healthy controls or cancer...

Find Another Essay On Physiology of Periodontal and Dental Problems

Applications of Complementary and Alternative Medicine In Dental Hygiene

756 words - 4 pages acupuncture can also be used to treat the problems associated with long time practice of dental hygiene. Concerning patient care, herbal medicine was implemented earlier than other complementary and alternative medicines. Mostly in the practice of pain and microbial control. In a text describing the many uses of herbs for common disorders, several treatments of toothaches are presented. The most common being the use of clove oil. Clove oil diluted in a

Problems of Civilization and Society Essay

1728 words - 7 pages Throughout human history, man has always encountered problems and seeks to solve it in order to alleviate his own suffering. Pain is one of the pertinent reasoning behind almost all actions taken by humanity as a whole, not dependent on status, class, race, gender, etc. However, as humans, we are also constrained to the society in which we live. We behave the way we do, and react the way we do because society has structured us to do so in

Biofilm Formation and Colonization are of Prime Importance in Initiation and Progression of Dental Caries

588 words - 3 pages . Chitosan is a safe and nontoxic material, which is capable of promoting regeneration of oral soft tissue and alveolar bone. It has bactericidal effect against bacteria and fungi. Ekarnon Mahapoka et al. [10] incorporated chitosan whisker from shrimps shells into dimethacrylate based dental resin sealant and claimed that sealant containing chitosan exhibited antibacterial effect against S. mutans and therefore can be used as an alternative

The Anatomy and Physiology of Respiratory System and the Diagnosis of Asthma

1287 words - 5 pages Respiration consists mainly of two processes.Respiration Internal or cellular respiration is the process by which glucose or other small molecules are oxidized to produce energy: this requires oxygen and generates carbon dioxide. External respiration (breathing) involves simply the stage of taking oxygen from the air and returning carbon dioxide to it. “Anatomy and Functions of Respiratory System and its Components” The respiratory

Comparing the Anatomy and Physiology of a Domestic House Cat, to that of a Human

3948 words - 16 pages Introduction For the cat lab, there is no hypothesis as this is a observational activity. The purpose of this lab is to compare the anatomy and physiology of a Domestic House Cat, to that of a human. The references are “New” Lab manual, and Disecction of the Cat. The scale of refrence is one bar = 3mm. Anatomy, Observations and Comparisons: External Anatomy. Firstly, when we got to our table, we removed our cat, which was a black and white

Efficacy of Three Mouth Rinses in Reducing Dental Plaque and Gingivitis

1798 words - 7 pages monitoring age for dental caries and 15 years age for the assessment of periodontal disease indicators in adolescents.20 Mouth rinses with active agents, alone or combined, in the treatment of dental plaque and gingivitis were tested among school children in previous studies.13,18,21 After completion of statistical analysis, the pharmaceutical company revealed the content of the mouth rinses to be as follows: Group A = 0.2% Chlorhexidine; Group B

Examine the Interaction between Cognition and Physiology in terms of Behaviour

1683 words - 7 pages itself presents problems, including the use of radioactive waves, and the inability to demonstrate function as it remains a static projection. Yet, because of this it has a high spatial resolution and an inexistent temporal resolution, a boon to the researchers in analysis. Despite its flaws and arguable unreliability, it is undeniable that it proves an interaction between cognition and physiology, and retains certain applicability as all brains are

Prevalence of Caries and Dental Fluorosis in School going Children Living in Dammam

1034 words - 5 pages To assess the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and caries among the school-children living in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Study Design: Study was conducted in both Public and Private schools located in Dammam, KSA. The prevalence among the Students was scan using WHO designed criteria. Students was examined for dental fluorosis and caries prevalence in their primary and permanent teeth. Students having age between 6 to 7 years old was

Examine one interaction between cognition and physiology in terms of behaviour. Evaluate two relevant studies

904 words - 4 pages In this essay, I will be exploring the hypotheses of the interaction between cognition and physiology in terms of amnesia. I will first define the key terms that are relevant to this essay: cognition is the mental process of acquiring and processing knowledge and understanding through thought, experience and the senses. Cognitive processes include perception, attention, language, memory and thinking. Physiology is the internal, biological

Saccodon dariensis (Pisces: Parodontidae): relation between dental polymorphism and variation of the body geometry

1913 words - 8 pages Five dental morphs have been reported in the parodontid genus Saccodon of Panama, Colombia and western Ecuador. We used geometric morphometrics to determine if specimens of Saccodon dariensis (Meek & Hildebrand, 1913) with two dental morphs (morph I and IV, according to Roberts 1974) in a stream a of the Guatapé river system, Antioquia, Colombia have differences in the size and the shape his body geometry. Differences in size between sex and

Saccodon dariensis (Pisces: Parodontidae): relation between dental polymorphism and variation of the body geometry

1363 words - 6 pages -Ballestas 2010), rule out the occurrence of a type of spatial and/or temporal reproductive isolation. In this sense, the possibility of associative mating pre or post-Zygotic are yet to explore. The presence of only two dental polymorphisms of the five previously published by Roberts (1974), may reflect differences in the selective pressure of the morphotypes. In a scenario of disruptive or balanced selection in which selection acts against the

Similar Essays

Studies Of Dental Fear And Anxiety

1847 words - 7 pages The dental fear and anxiety is an emotional distress condition that may lead to poor oral health in children, adolescents and adults. Researches of several studies investigated the origin, influence factors, physical and physiological responses, and types of management and intervention for dental phobia through various sources. Qualitative study utilized YouTube to gain insight to the public's perspective of dental fear and anxiety and

The Anatomy And Physiology Of Lipids

1156 words - 5 pages The Anatomy and Physiology of Lipids Abstract When you get up each morning and look outside your window looking out at the beautiful plants and adorable little animals, have you ever wondered what makes all living things? Lipids are what help create all the living things we see everyday. Lipids are found in all membranes, mainly plasma membranes, meaning animals and plants contain lipids. In this paper I will display and explain the

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Dental X Rays

899 words - 4 pages The X-ray was first invented by William Conrad Rontgen in 1895. He invented the x-ray by accident. He discovered an image from his cathode generator not knowing that it was an x-ray. Future investigation showed the rays were generated when the cathode ray beam on the inside of the vacuum tube, known as a radiograph. Lungs look black on an radiograph because the deal with air and air absorbs the least x-rays. One week after the discovery of the

Collection And Identification Of Plant Parts And Dental Caries Pathogens

1198 words - 5 pages Collection and identification of plant parts and dental caries Pathogens.  Plant Materials Collection The small branches of locally available Z. zanthoxyloides and T. glaucescens were collected from local Ogbete main market Enugu and were authenticated by Prof. Okigbo R.N of the department of Botany of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. These plant materials were dried under the sun for two weeks and also cut into pieces of approximately 15cms