Piaget's Belief that Children Construst Their Understanding of the World Differently than Adults
Piaget believed that children actively construct their understanding of the world in radically different ways from adults. He further believed that children's minds develop through a series of stages in which they form increasingly complex schemas that organize their past experiences and provide a framework for understanding future experiences.
In the sensorimotor stage, 0-2 years, children experience their world through their senses and actions. During this stage, object permanence (and stranger anxiety) develop.
In the preoperational stage, 2-7 years, children are able to use language but lack logical reasoning. During this stage, symbolic thought, egocentrism, Irreversibility, centration and conservation develops.
In the concrete operational stage,7-11 years, children are able to think logically about concrete events and perform mathematical operations.
The formal operational stage, 12 through adulthood, is characterized by abstract and systematic reasoning, as well as by the potential for mature moral reasoning.
Criticism - Today's researchers see development as more continuous than did Piaget. For example, object permanence, conservation, and the abilities to take another's perspective and perform mental operations unfold gradually and are not utterly absent in one stage and then suddenly present. Researchers also believe that Piaget underestimated young children's competence. They have found rudiments of various cognitive abilities at an earlier age than Piaget supposed.
In many ways, however, Piaget's theory continues to receive support. Despite variations in the rate at which children develop, research reveals that human cognition everywhere unfolds in the basic sequence he proposed.
Since you are apparently in good psychological health, according to the psychoanalytic perspective you must have experienced a healthy childhood and successfully passed Freud's stages of psychosexual development. Freud would also say that your ego is functioning well in balancing the demands of your id with the restraining demands of your superego and reality. Freud might also say that your honest nature reflects a well-developed superego, while Jung might say it derives from a universal value found in our collective unconscious.
Trait theorists would be less concerned with explaining these specific characteristics than with describing them, determining their consistency, and classifying your personality type. Some trait theorists, such as Allport, Eysenck, and Kagan, attribute certain trait differences to biological factors such as autonomic reactivity and heredity.
According to the humanistic perspective, your open and honest nature indicates that your basic needs have been met and you are in the process of self-actualization (Maslow). Furthermore, your openness indicates that you have a healthy self-concept and were likely nurtured by...