It is a method of growing isolated cell or tissue aseptically achieved by mechanical or enzyme method and culture it on a nutrient medium with required optimum conditions for it is growth and it is widely used to produce number of same copies of single plant and it is known as “micro propagation”.
The basic principle is the isolation of large number of living cells and cultures it on a suitable nutrient medium. Many plant cells have the ability to regrow a new plant called toti-potency. Single cells of plant, leaves, stems or roots can also used to generate a new plant on culture medium by giving required nutrients and plant hormones.
History of Tissue Culture technique in Pakistan:
Tissue culture method in Pakistan was started before ten years ago and this technique was truly new for most of the research labs and horticulture universities. From 1990 onwards the number of plant tissue culture lab were introduced where public and private sectors comes and invest in this new field of science. Now this field emerged rapidly that now everyone knows about the plant tissue culture and it is advantages in different science departments. Now plant tissue culture technique successfully emerging in Pakistan in different the field of establishment, to get varieties of new plant traits, to reduce plant diseases and many more.
Advantages of plants tissue culture:
There are certain advantages of plant tissue culture methods of micro-propagation, such as:
• Through plant tissue culture, plants have ability to form number of same copies of a plant within a short period of time. It may produces fruits, flower or other different types of traits.
• To produce number of copies of plant within a short period of time.
• The plant would be genetically modified by the process of regeneration from single plant.
• The process of regeneration of plants in optimum conditions that allows to reduces level of contamination.
• Micro-propagation is also valuable technique for horticulture and agriculture.
Steps are involved in plant tissue culture:
There are following steps which are involved in plant tissue culture:
Preparation of Culture Media:
First of all for culture media preparation we need following materials such as required including CO2, O2, water and light to the plant cell. The medium contains required carbohydrates, vitamins, micro-nutrients, macro-nutrients which dissolved in distilled water. The pH of the medium would be maintained to 5.7 to 6.1. Then liquid media pour into petri plate and allow to solidify. Mostly common medium that is use Murashige and Skoog MS-0 medium. MS contains all essential nutrients for the plant tissue culture. Indole Acetic Acid also required for plant tissue culture medium which also called 2, 4-Densures. The whole process will takes place under aseptic conditions that fully free from contamination.
Preparation of Explant:
Take any part of the plant tissue and placed into culture medium...