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Poisson Theorem Essay

1631 words - 7 pages

What is VVERDesignPrimary cooling circuitSecondary circuit and electrical outputCooling circuitSafety barriersOperational life of VVER 1000Future versionsPower plantsGalleryConclusionsReferencesWhat is VVERVVER stands for Vodo-Voda Energo Reactor. It is also known as WWER: Water-cooled Water-moderated Energy Reactor.The VVER reactor itself was developed by ROSATOM subsidiary OKB Gidropress, while the nuclear power stations employing the VVER have been developed by the power plant design organizations within ROSATOM: Moscow .The VVER is a pressurized water reactor (PWR), the commonest type of nuclear reactor worldwide, employing light water as coolant and moderator.Milestones:1947 -Research heavy water reactor1954 -Steam generator for 1st NPP1964 -VVER-1 (210MWe)1965 -Boiling water reactor VK-501966 -VVER-2 (70MWe)1969 -VVER-3 (365MWe)1969 -Sodium reactor BOR-601971 -First VVER-4401980 -First VVER-1000Now 54 VVER-440 and VVER-1000 are in commercial operation in Russia (17), Ukraine, Armenia, Finland, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czech Rep., Slovakia, China, Iran and India.
Gen I
VVER

Gen II
VVER-440

Gen II/Gen III
VVER-1000

Gen III+
VVER-1200

V-210
Russia:
Novovoronezh 1 (decommissioned)

V-179
Russia:
Novovoronezh 3-4

V-187
Russia: Novovoronezh 5

V-392M
Russia: Novovoronezh II 1-2
(under construction)

V-365
Russia:
Novovoronezh 2
(decommissioned)

V-230
Russia: Kola 1-2

V-302
Ukraine: South Ukraine 1

V-491
Russia: Baltic 1-2
(under construction)
Leningrad II 1-2
(under construction)
Belarus: Belarus 1 (under
construction)

Decommissioned:
East Germany:
Greifswald 1-4
Bulgaria:
Kozloduy 1-4
Slovakia:
Bohunice I 1-2

V-338
Ukraine: South Ukraine 2
Russia: Kalinin 1-2

V-213
Russia: Kola 3-4
Ukraine: Rovno 1-2
Hungary: Paks 1-4
Czech Rep.:
Dukovany 1-4
Finland: Loviisa 1-2
Slovakia:
Bohunice II 1-2
Mochovce 1-2
Mochovce 3-4
(under construction)

V-320
Russia: Balakovo 1-4, Kalinin 3-4,
Rostov 1-2, Rostov 3-4 (under construction)
Ukraine: Rovno 3-4, Zaporozhe 1-6,
Khmelnitski 1-2, South Ukraine 3
Bulgaria: Kozloduy 5-6
Czech Rep.: Temelin 1-2

V-270
Armenia:
Armenia-1
(decommissioned)
Armenia-2

V-428
China: Tianwan 1-2,
Tianwan 3-4 (under construction)

V-412
India: Kudankulam 1 ,
Kudankulam 2 (under construction)

V-466
Iran: Bushehr 1

DesignThe Russian abbreviation VVER stands for 'water-water energy reactor' (i.e. water-cooled water-moderated energy reactor).This describes the pressuri z ed water reactor (PWR) design. The main distinguishing features of the VVER compared to other PWRs are:Horizontal steam generatorsHexagonal fuel assembliesNo bottom penetrations in the pressure vesselHigh-capacity pressurizers providing a large reactor coolant inventoryReactor fuel rods are fully immersed in water kept at 15 MPa of pressure so that it does not boil at normal (220 to over 300 °C) operating temperatures.Water in the reactor serves both as a coolant and a moderator which is an important safety feature.Should...

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