Policies Affecting Women And Migrant Workers

1737 words - 7 pages

How has the pre-existing gender division of labor and gendered state policies affected Saudi Arabia’s women workers in their demand for equal opportunities and fair treatment? What are some of the factors involved in disempowering migrant workers in host countries and what happens when these workers start asking for their rights?
Given the global economic restructuring and the shifting international division of labor, regions like the Middle East have become salient destination sites for many sub-Saharan African and South East Asian migrant workers. While past scholarship has focused on men-dominated migration patterns, current scholarship reports the increasing presence of women among migrant workers, particularly in the Gulf region (Martin Baldwin). In “Domestic Workers: Little Protection for the Underpaid,” Gloria Chammartin maintains that the number of migrant women have come to equal or outnumber men in recent years. Female migrant workers now constitute larger percentages of migrant workers in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, which include Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, Kuwait, and the United Arab Emirates. (470) For instance, data shows that more than 90 percent of Indonesian workers in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates consisted of women workers in 1997-1998. In 2001, between 85 and 94 percent of Sri Lankan workers in Jordan, Kuwait, and Lebanon were women. The increase in international labor demand across this region is mostly attributed to the oil boom of the 1970s.
The oil boom of the 1970s created a demand for both skilled and unskilled labor in the Gulf region. In its early stages, demands for the labor construction sector were met mostly by male workers. (Munira Ismail) Later, as construction projects culminated and living standards rose, opportunities for employment in the service sector became available and opened the doors for female labor migration. (229) Today, domestic workers primarily emigrate from Sri Lanka, Indonesia and the Philippines, choosing to migrate for a number of economic, social or political reasons. Currently, Saudi Arabia is the largest recipient of migrant domestic labor, with the UAE close behind with over seventy-five percent of its population classified as migrant workers. As the ‘feminization’ of labor increases, risks of trafficking and abuse arise as many women migrants end up in the care industry, working as housemaids. For the purpose of this research, I will focus on migrant domestic workers in Saudi Arabia and identify key factors that restrict and limit their empowerment: gendered ideologies and states policies. I outline the nature of the domestic service in Riyadh and attempt to apply Maher and Staab’s discussion on Peruvian migration to Chile, and Chow’s article on empowerment to the Middle East context. Based on these accounts, I argue that the rise in labor migration caused by globalization has allowed states like Saudi Arabia to further repress basic workers rights.

Find Another Essay On Policies Affecting Women and Migrant Workers

The Impact of Nazi Policies on the Position and Role of Women in Germany, 1933-39

1186 words - 5 pages The Impact of Nazi Policies on the Position and Role of Women in Germany, 1933-39 The Nazi regime aimed to utilize the family for its own needs. Women were obligated to marry and have children, instead of having their own personal decisions. The functions of the family were reduced to the single task of reproduction. They aimed to break the family, and to place it as a breeding and rearing institution completely in the

What were the economic effects of Nazi policies towards Jews and towards women?

717 words - 3 pages There were many Nazi policies that effected Jews and women. In this essay I will look closely at the economical effects it had on them.Women were encouraged to have a lot more children. There were even medals if you had a certain amount of children. Four was bronze, six silver and eight gold. Holders of the award were given an honoured place at Nazi meetings. The Nazis believed that women and men had different roles in life. A man was either a

How Far Did Stalin’s Social Policies Change the Lives of Children and Women in the Years to 1945?

1428 words - 6 pages working women back to the ideas of Motherhood and Family Tradition as he could see that due to Lenin’s policies the birth rate in Russia had declined and the amount of divorces were outweighing those getting married, the easiness in getting a divorce also meant that the sanctity of marriage was threatened leading to children being born to single parents and children abandoned as a result. Stalin countered the problems by introducing laws that made

The Impact of Rural-Urban Migration on the Provision of Care for Older People in China

2421 words - 10 pages , 2012). There are similarities underlying these care chains, according to Bettio et al (2006) and Yeats (2009), the reasons why this care chain emerge includes: 1) in input countries: population ageing, decreasing birth rates, increasing labour force participation of women, insufficient market and public care provision for elderly people, increasing needs of caregivers, unwillingness of national workers to undertake care work; 2) to output migrant

How is Rural-Urban Migration Shaping the Provision of Care for Older People in Urban China

1386 words - 6 pages Bettio et al (2006) illustrated, 1) in input countries: ageing, decreasing birth rates, increasing labour force participation of women, increasing needs of caregivers, unwillingness of national workers to undertake care work; 2) to output migrant workers: attractive payment, better working conditions and career prospects, supportive immigration policies. The trend of migrant care workers also puts forward challenges. To input areas, as Bettio et al

Labour Market Need

979 words - 4 pages The oft-repeated explanation for these outcomes is a labour market need for migrant workers to fill jobs that indigenous workers reject (Fellini et al., 2007; Massey et al., 1998; Piore, 1979). However, this is not a spontaneous process and it is important to recognize the role played by labour market actors, particularly employers (or their agents) and the state (Bach, 2007; Rodriguez, 2004). Employers engage in active recruitment

Understandings and Approaches to Human Trafficking in the Middle East

1719 words - 7 pages both the public and policymakers to deepen their understandings of human trafficking in the Middle East as well as looking past gender, racial, and classist biases that may affect their perceptions of human trafficking and who it inherently affects. Migrant workers remain the most vulnerable to trafficking within the region and thus a reform of the kafala system as well as policies directed specifically at protecting migrant workers seem to be

The Great Depression's Effect on American People Depicted in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men

629 words - 3 pages life was like for low-paid, poor workers and to show how the Great Depression effected American people. He represents what life was like for many unprivileged people in 1930s America: migrant workers, women and black Americans. Firstly, John Steinbeck represents the lives of migrant workers in his novel, ‘Of Mice and Men’. The lives of migrant workers were hard, challenging and unrewarding. Migrant workers suffered from poverty because they were

Migrant Workers in China

1436 words - 6 pages Hong Xia and most migrants in China, but there are also many differences. These include their expectations, working environment, living environment and children. Like many of the migrant workers in China, Chen Hong Xia wanted a better future in the city and find a job with good working conditions and high wages. Chen Hong Xia comes from a small town in Shandong province, she grew up on a farm producing rice and corn. Although there were many

Women in Ethnic Minoritys in Ireland.

2815 words - 11 pages up nearly ten percent of the population. This essay will discuss the issues facing the women in minority groups in modern Ireland. The minority groups considered for this essay will be Irish traveller women and migrant women. The term 'migrant women' includes not only recent immigrants and refugees but also those who have temporary status as visitors, tourists, temporary workers, students and undocumented migrants. It also includes those Irish

China’s Rising Inequality

2953 words - 12 pages still had a planned economy where jobs were assigned to women and men, and the Communist Party mandated gender equality in the workplace. But, by the mid-1990s, as market reforms took off, there were massive layoffs - 43 million lost their jobs and women were often the first to be let go and the last to be rehired" (Chlu, 2013). It is not just urban women who face inequality in the work place, the female rural migrant workers face tougher

Similar Essays

Migrant Workers And Steinbecks Grapes Of Wrath

1253 words - 5 pages medical care. Shannon Pergament, coordinator of a University of the Minnesota Extension Service Program that trains migrant farm workers to serve as lay health promoters, stated: "Migrant workers are in need of basic health service as well as health and safety information. Low pay without health benefits, racial discrimination, low levels of formal health education, and a lack of familiarity with local health and social service systems contribute

"The Migrant Workers Of The Dirty Thirties", Compares "Of Mice And Men" And "The Grapes Of Wrath" Both By John Steinbeck, With True Migrant Workers Of That Time.

1396 words - 6 pages certain elements in common with migrant workers of the Depression. The main struggles for migrant workers during the 1930s were work and survival, looking out for one another, and dreams.Surviving the Great Depression was a major concern for people all over North America, and the people of the Great Plains had tough weather conditions to deal with in addition to the failing economy. The "Dust Bowl", a series of dust storms and destructive winds, was

A Comparison Of Migrant Workers In The Grapes Of Wrath And Of Mice And Men

2952 words - 12 pages Migrant Workers in The Grapes of Wrath and Of Mice and Men        John Steinbeck wrote about what surrounded him. At the time he was writing, the nineteen-thirties, a great depression was plaguing the United States. Many people were out of work. Many farmers were losing their farms and homes. An extreme drought had also wrecked the farms of the Midwest and made them into what is now referred to as the "dust bowl". It was a terrible

How Does Steinbeck Present The Culture Of The Migrant Workers In The Novel "Of Mice And Men"?

1429 words - 6 pages migrant men had to travel alone to different places to find temporary jobs in ranches. Most of these people did not have their own families and their relatives maybe too far away, most had no friends so they travelled and lived alone only to care for themselves.. This is shown in Of Mice and Men by the loneliness and isolation with some of the workers on the ranch. The men were very isolated and had no time for proper relationships with women