Madagascar is among the countries that are termed as least developed in the world today (United Nations, 2001). The implementation of trade agreement based on agriculture sector led to sluggishness in the various market dynamics of the available grains. In addition to this, the quantity of grains was declining and as a consequence of this, the revenues generated declined at an alarming rate. The country was therefore obliged to opt for food import. This step was taken as a result of reduction in the amount of aid granted to the government, and subsequent subsidization of exports. Since Madagascar could not afford to offer export subsidization, the country’s exports were highly affected by the established policies such as non-tariff measures.
The free market further led to information sharing of Madagascar with the rest of the world. One of the key results of this was the introduction of arms in the country and emergence of social evils such as prostitutions. In addition to this, there was culture diffusion for the Madagascar community members and the trade partners.
Madagascar had a well established base of political instability, defined by constant political agendas that were always conflicting. As a result of this, any kind of reforms to be carried out in the country really faced numerous drawbacks. But at the change of reforms, there was room for privatization of various government owned firms, increment in the export processing zones, and an overwhelming liberalization in fuel. In addition to this, the forest rules allowed purchase of land. However, there was a government set land that was used only for wildlife conservation and forest growth (Kull, Ibrahim, and Meredith, 2006).
According to Duffy (2005), the mining of gem accrued benefits to selected few in the society. These were basically people within the economic wealthy group and power bearers. The common people were involved in the actual digging of the gem. However, they just received peanuts from the sale of the stones, while the wealthy would gain enormous cash from the sale of the same. This was attributed to the fact that, the wealthy had all the necessary connections to international markets. Despite this, the mining of gem was characterized by myriad negative effects to the local environment. However, attempts from various non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and donors to challenge the same, were completely blocked by the shadow state that had a very great influence in Madagascar.
Moreover, the mining act is practiced in selected and secured areas thus limiting the efforts of various national and related international agencies to protect or conserve the immediate surroundings. On the other side, the potential grounds for gem mining are located in the secured government areas, and the rainforest zones which are known to have an enormous degree of biodiversity. Thus many NGOs find it cumbersome to advocate for ecotourism and national parks. This is attributed to the...