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Policing In New York Essay

2346 words - 10 pages

Kelling and Bratton believe the police played an important role due to a number of ideas that were implemented within the police force in the early 1990s. The appointment of Bratton to police commissioner and Jack Maple to deputy commissioner and that of Rudolph Giuliani to Mayor of New York saw their idea of order maintence policing being implemented. They had an idea of policing that had been applied to the New York subway system and they had seen it work to lower crime rate in the subway (Kelling, Bratton, 1998). Bratton had also being exploring ways of improving policing through leadership, management and administration and had some changes to make when he took over the New York Police ...view middle of the document...

Today New York’s subway is one of the safest in the world. This story is relevant because the police tactics used, the organizational changes and administrative processes implemented into the subway Transport Police Department foreshadowed those in the NYPD, also it is important as in the case of the subway, despite other factors such as social services getting involved with the homelessness having some influence, it is still hard to credit anything but police work for the positive changes (Kelling, Bratton, 1998).Now while crime is undoubtedly more complicated in New York City as a whole the core ideas of this idea could be applied. As mentioned earlier when Bratton took over the NYPD he had ideas for changes in leadership etc. At the time the NYPD’s reputation was suffering after a number of well-known publicized scandals so the bureau was largely operating on a ‘do nothing to stay out of trouble’ model with many bureaus such as the narcotics bureau only working nine to five Monday to Friday (Kelling, Bratton, 1998). When Bratton took over he employed new organizational methods such as demanding that middle management be held accountable for crime reduction and by producing plans to deal with specific problems such as guns (Kelling, Bratton, 1998). We will look at this tactic and other tactics employed further on.New police tactics were developed and employed similar to what the subway police did. One proven method that worked was that of ‘hot spots’ which involved targeted policing on high crime spots. Priority drug markets were also targeted for arrest, surveillance and sustained attack (Zimmring, 2007). There was a new method of street policing that was debatably much more aggressive. Police had the right to stop and frisk anyone they thought was suspicious on the streets, that is anyone they thought might have or be going to commit a crime. Stop and frisk searches increased from 41,438 stops in 1990 to 581,382 over the next two decades (Zimmring, 2011). Of course these methods have come at some costs. Some claim that the searches are racist as well as involve an unnecessary use of force, with a recent figure showing that 53 per cent of stops being carried out were on African Americans (Kavanaugh Dixon, 2013). The NYPD argue that these are just the facts of who is most likely to commit crime with Commissioner Kelly stating that 70-75% of violent crimes are committed by African Americans (Kavanaugh Dixon, 2013). Interestingly there has been class actions suits taken against New York for unconstitutional stop and frisk searches, most notably Floyd v City of New York. The ruling was for there to be reform to the stop and frisk searches to avoid unconstitutional stops (Gregorian, Schapiro, 2014). Part of the argument around stop and frisk searches is that there was unnecessary use of police force. But it is important to note in the argument of brutality that police shootings and complaints reached their lowest level in the 1998 since the 1970s...

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