Politic Essay

1788 words - 7 pages

ALEJANDRO ALATORRE REYES 512 N.L.:1Moral y política (Platón)Como ya se ha dicho, la motivación más importante de la filosofía de Platón es la de proporcionar al hombre una serie de principios morales de acuerdo con los cuales pueda guiar su vida como ciudadano. Por ello su filosofía culmina en un proyecto de reforma política. En este sentido, Platón sigue siempre fiel a su maestro Sócrates y profundiza el proyecto socrático de una reforma del individuo y del Estado. Para Platón, como para Sócrates, la virtud (ética y política, pues no hay diferencia entre una y otra, por lo mismo que no se puede separar el bien del individuo del de la sociedad en que vive) es objeto de ciencia, esto es, de un conocimiento cierto y riguroso; y esto quiere decir que no se elabora sobre contenidos empíricos sino sobre ideas. La ciencia política y moral no versará sobre las distintas formas de Estado que se dan a la vista, sino sobre el Estado ideal que descubre el filósofo...La República. la ciudad ideal y la Justicia.La descripción de la ciudad ideal es el objetivo de la obra capital de Platón: La República. Esta obra, que es la exposición más completa de su filosofía, tiene por hilo conductor el problema de la justicia, una justicia que es a un tiempo un concepto moral, político y ontológico. El protagonista del diálogo es Sócrates (que expone las ideas del propio Platón) y el antagonista es la sofística. El diálogo comienza con la discusión sobre el concepto o definición de justicia. En las primeras tentativas, Sócrates se enfrenta a las siguientes opiniones de los sofistas: justo es la obligación de decir la verdad; justo es dar a cada uno lo que de él se ha recibido; justo es hacer bien a los amigos y mal a los enemigos. Todas estas definiciones son deficientes y Sócrates las desmonta mostrando casos, que todo el mundo considera de justicia, que las desmienten: no es justo decir la verdad sobre su estado a un hombre que se ha vuelto loco, ni devolverle a este hombre las armas que de él se recibieron, y tampoco es justo el que hace peores a los demás, ya sean sus enemigos, sino el que los hace mejores. Tras la primera refriega, los sofistas arguyen unas tesis calificables de materialismo e individualismo egoísta: la justicia es el interés de los más fuertes, el hombre llamado injusto es más feliz que el llamado justo, lo cual se muestra en que todo el mundo alaba al justo con la boca grande, pero se ríe de él en secreto. Contra la primera tesis -que hay que entender en el sentido de que en cada Estado es considerado justo el cumplir la ley, siendo la ley ventajosa únicamente para los fuertes, que son los que la imponen a los...

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