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Political Ideologies Play A Significant Role In Determining The Direction Of Leisure And Tourism Policy.

2181 words - 9 pages

"Political Ideologies play a significant role in determining the direction of leisure and tourism policy" DiscussIntroductionFor this essay I want to focus on policies of leisure from an ideological context. I will be looking at policies that have been created over the years and the views of different political ideologies on them. Different ideologies have different views on subjects related to leisure policy and public policy in general. Firstly I will look at different theories of the State, which might reflect the British State at different stages in its development.To analyse the ideologies behind leisure policies I will use Lowi's (1972: cited in Henry 2001) method. He outlines four types or categories of public policy; distributive policies - benefiting all or most of the citizens indiscriminately; redistributive policies- generally favouring a segment of the population at the cost of the other segments; constituent policies- which define procedures in a democratic society such as election laws; and finally, regulative policies- controlling the behaviour of the members of the community (Henry 2001). Leisure policies take predominantly one of three forms. They can be intended to be distributive, redistributive or regulative policies. I will try to incorporate these forms whenever analysing leisure policies from an ideological perspective. What will follow is a general discussion. At the end of this discussion I will aim to find out whether leisure policies really influenced by political ideologies or not.Marxist theoriesThese have never been terribly popular in British politics and policy debates as positive solutions, but they do serve as a rich source of criticisms. This work provides us with some backing for a very common suspicion -- that the State is really on the side of ruling class groups, that it somehow represents the powerful groups against the rest of us. Most Marxists seem to agree about is that the State pursues its own agendas most of the time, but simply needs our consent now and then through an election every four years or so, or even a referendum (Best 2002). In between times, the State uses a whole range of their organs and apparatuses, using both force and persuasion, to gain our consent to its policies. Policies of leisure, or more generally culture, can be seen as part of this attempt to gain consent, perhaps most obviously in the Victorian policies of 'rational recreation'. Marxists are predominantly interested in the regulative policies of the state; these policies are seen as ideological state apparatus (ISA) by the likes of Althusser and Bourdieu (Henry 2001).Conservative theoriesConservative theory assumes that the State represents the nation itself, our society in a general sense and the British people. It is clear that these terms do not refer to the actual society that we see in front of us, but to some ideal version of it, to the best of Britain, to the great traditions of Britain, to what we are really like,...

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