Polycystic Kidney Disease, also known as PKD, is a common inherited gene disorder that causes the growth of cysts in the tissues of both the kidneys. The kidneys are a major organ in the excretory system; they remove wastes from the blood and form of urine. They filter the blood, keeping it clean of all wastes and have a number of other functions as well. Due to the growth of cysts on the kidneys it makes it hard to carry out these functions and the will eventually cause the kidneys to fail. This paper will discuss what PKD is, the many symptoms and treatments of PKD, and recent developments in research of this disease.
Polycystic Kidney Disease
Description and Affects
Polycystic Kidney Disease, often referred to as PKD, is a genetic disorder passed down through families and involving bilateral renal cysts, usually without abnormality. The kidneys are located in the upper part of the abdomen, toward the back, and about the size of one’s fist. They filter waste and unneeded fluid from the blood and form urine. When cysts form in or on the kidneys they fill with fluid and become enlarged. The enlargement of the kidneys will result in decreased function and eventually kidney failure. There are two major forms of PKD, autosomal dominant (ADPKD) and autosomal recessive (ARPKD). Both of these can involve the presence of renal cysts at any time during an affected person’s life, from prenatal stages into adulthood.
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited kidney disease. This type is passed from parent to child by an autosomal dominant type of inheritance. This means that only one copy of the abnormal gene is needed to cause the disease. Therefore, if one parent has the disease, each child has a 50-50 chance of developing the disease. The risk is the same for every child, regardless of how many children develop the disease. Boys and girls have the same chance of inheriting the disease. This disorder affects multiple systems in the body, usually starting with a progressive cystic dilation of both kidneys. Sometimes extra manifestations may occur in other areas including the GI tract, the cardiovascular system, the reproductive organs and sometimes the brain. Most common presenting signs and symptoms of ADPKD include: abdominal and side pain or discomfort, hematuria (blood in the urine), recurring urinary tract infections, hypertension, abdominal mass, renal pain and insufficiency and kidney stones.
Polycystic Kidney Disease
Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD), once thought to only appear in infancy or early childhood, is a rare inherited form of PKD. This form is passed by an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. This means that both parents must carry at least one of the abnormal genes, and both must pass at least one gene to the child in order for the child to develop the disease. In this situation, every child has a 25 percent chance of...