The animal life in the pond may vary from time to time, it will also vary from pond to pond. But there are a few things about the animals in those ponds that will never change. These are the basics to survival. The man needs, food, water, and shelter; the pond animals are very similar in their needs. This section will emphasize the array of ways that aquatic pond animals breathe, swim, and survive.
Breathing; in this category it would be within reason to say that fish are the masters of the concept. The fish takes oxygen rich water in through its mouth and forces it though his gills. As it is going past the gills, the blood vessels that are close to the surface of the gills collect the oxygen from the water, and supply the blood stream. Once this water has been used, it forced into the surrounding water where it will be oxygenated once again. Providing oxygen was not all that the water was good for, it took with it carbon dioxide from the fish’s body. This entire process is completed in a surprisingly short time, making it a very effective form of breathing.
Many animals that live in the water for their entire life and others that will go from the water to the land as they grow older will still breathe air even though they are in the water. One of the ways that frogs and turtles will get around the lack of air is by the special design of their noses. They have raised nostrils that allow them to breathe while staying under water to avoid detection by predators. Another way pond animals breathe in the water is with special “tubes” that go up to the surface of the water for them to breathe through. Some animals that have this ability are the rat-tailed maggots that have a three inch tube to breathe through, water scorpions also have this ability. The tube can be imagined like a strait snorkel that is permanently attached to the animal.
Another slightly more complicated way of breathing under water is by bringing a bubble of air down with you. This how many beetles and spiders breathe under water. The great diving beetle will hold its head down and collect water under its wings to bring down with it to breathe. The silver beetle will used a modified form of an antenna to collect air. It will then take this air to store in its hair, this allows the beetle to move a bit more freely than holding a bubble by itself. Another beetle has a different variation of this bubble concept that would surprise most. This is the concept of the Backswimmer, it uses a flat air bubble to act as the gills on a fish. Using this method the bubble does not need to be replace as often as the other ways mentioned above.
Now that the animals are breathing under water, it is time for them to swim, to get around and to be able to get the food that they need. But wait, not all animals swim in the water, they do however still live in the water. These animals crawl around on the floor, or many of them just float around at the mercy of the...