Population Essay

1633 words - 7 pages

Human Population Survivorship of19th & 21st Centuries in Winston Salem, North CarolinaTeague, JimmieBio 302W-Sec 02Dr. StavnMarch 24, 2014INTRODUCTIONDemographical studies are essential when looking at the survivorship of a species and factors that could change aspects of the population dynamics. These factors include periods of war, environmental changes, disease evolution, to economic factors, and improvements in medical science. Comparing the survivorship of populations from different time periods will help researchers see the trends that could be affecting the population. This type of comparison is accomplished by using life tables and survivorship graphs. Life tables are statistical relationships relating life expectancy and mortality for a given group. This specified group is defined as a cohort, which is a group of individuals born in the same time period. Life tables come in two forms. The first form is the cohort or dynamic life table that looks at a group born during the same time interval. The second form is the static or time-specific life table it is not as commonly used because it counts all individuals alive at a given time and records the age of each. Typically, the static table is used when the group being measured has a long life span that may not be conducive for following over time. When analyzing the population in question over several time periods, it is important to construct a dynamic-composite table that allows the data to be collected at the age of death and over a specified time interval (Stavn, 2013). This data is gathered in order to establish a cohort in order to create life tables and survivorship curve comparison by time, age, and sex. There are three types of survivorship curves, each of which look at a population in a different way. In this experiment, the Type I survivorship curve is most appropriate when considering human populations that exhibit higher survivorship in early and middle life stages and later have a rapid decline. It is believed in this experiment that by comparing population survivorship from the 19th and 21st century of the Old Salem area, we will find a significant increase in mortality during the 19th century compared to 21st century survivorship curves.METHODSThe protocols for this study are outlined by the lab handout "Human Demography Study Ecology Lab" (Stavn, 2013). Data was collected from the Old Salem, Winston Salem area for time periods prior to 1890. The number of mortalities in 19th century Old Salem was collected from historical cemetery grave markers showing deaths prior to the year 1890 for both male and females. On any marker where the sex was indeterminate for infants, the sex was determined by the sex the nearby graves around it. The death totals were grouped together by sex and 5 year age intervals from 0-1 to 100+. This data was then pooled together with other collections for a larger cohort size. With the data pooled, cohort life tables for male and females were...

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