Livestock Sector occupies a unique position in the socio-economic development of Pakistan. Its contribution in the agriculture is 55.4 percent and 11.9 percent in the national GDP.About 35-40 percent of income of more than 35 million rural populations comes from livestock production activities.Eight percent of total exports derived from livestock and livestock products. According to Economic Survey of Pakistan 2013-14,approximately 64.4 Million is goat population out of which 23.35 Millionare present in Punjab, and these produce about 801 thousand tons of milk and 643 Million ton mutton per annum.
There are 37 breeds of goats (Caprahircus) found in different regions of the Pakistan.Out of these, milk breeds are Beetal, Dera Din Panah, Khurasani and Kamori, meat breeds are Barbari, Chapper and teddy while Pak Angora, Bilkaneri, Kaghani are hairy breeds.Majority of these breeds are dual purpose; both mutton and milk type.
Mastitis represents a serious problem in dairy goats; causing significant economic losses mainly derived from reduced milk production and discarded milk (Marta Aires-de-Sousa et al. 2007). It has been estimated that mastitis reduces milk yield by approximately 21% and butter fat by 25% in affected dairy goats as compared to normal one. The economic losses due to mastitis have been identified as milk discarded due to abnormal characters and presence of antibiotics, reduced production of milk due to clinical and sub-clinical udder infection, decreased market value of goat due to damage of teats and cost of veterinary services to treat mastitis (AmalenduChakrabarti, 2007).
Mastitis is defined as inflammation of parenchyma of the mammary gland and changes in the composition of milk (Huijps et al. 2008). The changes in milk include change in color, consistency and presence of abnormally large number of leukocytes.The prevalence of mastitis in dairy goats is 30.6 and 35% in the Pakistan and the World respectively (Zamin Ali et al. 2010).The incidence of mastitis is higher during winter and spring calving’s in the tropical and sub-tropical areas. It is more in low slung or pendulous and long teats breeds of dairy goats. Bacteria (70%), yeasts and molds (02%) and unknown factors (28%) are involved in the etiology of mastitis.
The most prevalent pathogenic bacteria causing mastitis are Staphylococcus spp. (38.2%) Staphylococcus aureus (11.0%) and Streptococcus spp.(4.1%), other than these are Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp., Pasteurella spp., Enterococcus faecalis, Corynebacterium spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus spp., Serratia spp., Bacillus spp., and Actinomyces spp. Mastitis is indicated in a milk sample by an elevated level of SCC.
The pre-disposing factors of mastitis includes age, breed, stage of lactation, incomplete milking, size of herd, seasons, genetic factors, trauma, hygiene, resistance, skin lesions, infected quarter and...