Since the fall of the authoritarian New Order regime and the reform of 1998, Indonesia experienced political changes and are in the process of transitioninginto a more democratic country. These changes characterized by the rise of large scale communal conflicts either between ethnic or religious. Conflict violence based on ethnic takes place in Sambas, West Kalimantan (Klinken, 2007, Tanasaldy, 2012) and Sampit, Central Kalimantan (Klinken, 2007). While large scale interreligious communal violence occurred in Ambon, Maluku (Bertrand, 2002); North Halmahera, North Maluku (Wilson, 2005, Duncan, 2013) and Poso, Central Sulawesi (Arragon, 200, McRae, 2013).
Despite the efforts of the peace agreement has been made in some areas of conflict, but sporadic and small-scale conflict still occur. Malino Declaration 1 in 2001, which is mediated by JusufKalla, Minister of people’s welfare coordinator at that time intended to stop all conflicts and strife in Poso (Tempo, 2001).However, not long after the peace treaty, the violence began to happen again with the aim of committing terror to the community in which the combatant started doing assaults, bombings, and shootings mysteriously. Similarly,the Malino 2 Peace Agreement in 2002 which became a milestone in the cessation of a conflict in Ambon, Maluku that has lasted for 36 months (Siwalimanews, 2012), butthe uncertainty violence incidents still continue. Even riot occurred in 2004 that led to 40 killed (Brown et al, 2005), followed by a new conflict incidents occurred on 2011 caused by the die of motorbike driver (Moslem) in Christian area (Kompas, 2011) and in 2012 at the commemoration of Pattimura Day (Kompas, 2012).
Various efforts peacebuilding and conflict resolution have been made in Posoeither on community level grass roots, community leaders and the local government (Brown et al, 2005, Humanitarian Dialogue Center 2011). However, in the last few years, Poso as a post conflict area often experienced a small scale conflict and terrors. The violent incidents such as the shooting of the police in Palu (Jakarta Post, 2011); police killings in the region of Tamanjeka (Kompas, 2012); attacks and bomb on the police station Poso in district level (Kompas 2012); a firefight between the terrorists and the police (Kompas, 2014). Nevertheless, various incidents of this conflict does not trigger greater violence between communities.
According to Collier, Hoeffler and Soderbom (2006), post-conflict regions become susceptible to recurrent conflict be it on a small scale-sporadic and large scale (mass violence). Therefore, both actors (parties) who has been involved in the conflict as well as external parties and governance post-conflicts should give priority to reducing the risks of conflict.In addition, peacebuilding efforts must also continue to run. As defined by Boutros Boutros-Ghali about peacebuilding as an "action to identify and support structures which tend to strengthen...