This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Poverty In Pakistan: Causes And Consequences

1746 words - 7 pages

Poverty, a multidimensional global phenomenon, as defined by World Bank is an income level below some minimum threshold deemed necessary to achieve basic needs. This minimum level is usually called the “poverty line”. The things required to satisfy basic needs are highly time and society dependent. Therefore, poverty lines vary from country to country as each country defines and sets the poverty line limit according to its own level of development, societal norms and values. But the contents of the needs are more or less the same everywhere. Hunger, lack of shelter, being sick and unable to see a doctor, no access to school and education, joblessness, fear of the future are all the ...view middle of the document...

Due to poor progress in education, especially female education, and the high early mortality rates Pakistan’s population has grown unbounded. This increase in population has slowed down the momentum of achieving the targets of per capita income. Pakistan’s economic struggle in fighting poverty cannot be separated from improving the overall human development indicators.

As macroeconomic policies has strong impact on shaping a country’s economy and incase of Pakistan, the economic policies kept on changing with the changing governments and political system, therefore it is necessary to look at various eras of the Pakistani politics after its independence. The 1960s was the time of military dictatorship and Presidential form of government was prevalent. This period saw an economic growth at 6.8 percent per annum. The primary reason for the growth was economic development strategy, by which private sector development and foreign direct investments were encouraged and were given generous incentives. Economic policies were also favoring the large-scale manufacturing sector, as there were many tariff protection and generous fiscal for them. The later part of 1960’s was characterized by the Green Revolution. This revolution led to large increases in agricultural production and especially in wheat and rice.
Parliamentary democracy saw light of the day in 1970s, which lasted till 1970s. This period lasted till 1977. This period was characterized with growing control and involvement of the government in economic development through the nationalization of insurance and banking sectors. This period witnessed economic growth decline to 4.8 percent per annum, because of the reduction in private sector investment in agriculture and industries. Inflation rates were high, which were further fueled by Arab oil embargo and large-scale overseas migration to the Middle-East. Reforms in the education sector were introduced by which state took over schools and colleges and free primary education was provided, but these reforms didn’t help improve the quality of education
In the period between 1977 and 1988, military dictatorship returned to country which lasted till 1985. From 1985 to 1988 there was restricted parliamentary democracy. Again in this military regime Pakistan saw economic growth as GDP increased by 6.7 percent per annum. In this period like the previous military regime preference was given to private sector and foreign direct investments. There was a gradual dismantle of state controls. The focus was on denationalization and deregulation of industrial activity while economic and welfare measures were introduced to Islamize the economy. Also there was a rapid increase in remittance flows into the economy.
Post 1988 period saw return of complete parliamentary democracy. Total of nine different governments’, four interim-appointed and four elected ruled Pakistan in this period. This period saw increase in political instability. Despite the introduction...

Find Another Essay On Poverty in Pakistan: Causes and Consequences

The Causes And Consequences Of The General Strike In 1926

1340 words - 5 pages The Causes And Consequences Of The General Strike In 1926 For a brief period after the First World War, Britain faced an economic boom. Workers were in a strong position and businesses were optimistic, believing that world demand for British goods would increase and trading would return to the success it had prior to the war. However, in 1920, Britain experienced their worst economic slump in history. This was caused by


2341 words - 9 pages There is widespread poverty in Pakistan and the two main reasons are poor governance and income inequality. Few studies have focused on the theoretical substantiation of impact of bad governance and income inequality on poverty, but we do not find any study carrying empirical work on the impact of bad governance on poverty in Pakistan. This study is an empirical research that attempts to find out the long run and short run impact of poor

Impact of Poor Governance and Income Inequality on Poverty in Pakistan

1657 words - 7 pages measures of good economic governance, was a mixture signifying deterioration and downfall in 1990s. He recommended that economic management and governance in Pakistan has to be excellent if Pakistan has to achieve above average economic growth and reduced poverty levels. Sumarto, Suryahadi and Arifianto (2004) empirically examined the impact of bad governance on poverty alleviation in Indonesia. Their study showed that the poor are thoroughly

Impact of Foreign Remittances on Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction in Pakistan

2476 words - 10 pages positively by reducing current account deficit, improving the balance of payment position and reducing dependence on external borrowing (Iqbal and Sttar, 2005). Pakistan like other developing countries in the world is known for its high migration and workers’ remittance. It is argued that this high migration is the result of poor economic conditions of the country because the economy is facing so many problems like unemployment, illiteracy, poverty

Human Poverty, Ecological Considerations and Consequences

748 words - 3 pages Human poverty is a major problem. As poverty continues to persist in the world the environment will continue to suffer the consequences. Issues about environment, economics and politics are inter-related through the way humans interact with their surroundings and with each other.Human activities are resulting in mass species extinction rates higher than ever before, currently approaching 1000 times the normal rate. Human caused climate change is

The Causes and Consequences of Social Instability in Japan in the 1920s and Early 1930s

1837 words - 7 pages The Causes and Consequences of Social Instability in Japan in the 1920s and Early 1930s Japan was an old-fashioned, ancient country in 1860s. With the help of the reforms during the Menji Period (1868-1912), Japanunderwent the processes of modernization and westernization. The military power, economic, political conditions, etc. of Japan hugely improved and the society was stable, steady and prosper. However, after the end

Causes and Consequences of Alcohol Prohibition

1570 words - 6 pages structure of American policy making, especially liquor policies. Throughout US history, states have regulated alcohol consumption in many different ways such as liquor licensing, local options, excise taxation, distribution and finally, statutory prohibition. Indeed, according to Shrad (2007), the prohibition causes lie within american policy experimenting just as nine other North American and European countries did. (Schrad, 2007) Consequences

Causes of Brain Trauma and their Consequences

1624 words - 7 pages WOMEN`S UNIVERSITY IN AFRICA Addressing gender disparity and fostering equity in University Education INTAKE 13 GROUP NAMES : Mercyline Soko W130140 Idi C. Kasu W130244 TITLE OF ASSIGNMENT: Examine causes of brain trauma and their consequences. PROGRAMME : BSc (Hons) in Psychology COURSE TITTLE : Psychobiology DUE DATE : 10 April 2014 LECTURER’S NAME : Mrs D. Machando SESSION : Evening SEMESTER : 2:1

Causes and Consequences of Marital Breakdown

884 words - 4 pages Helga Kissová, 3ESANThe Causes and Consequences of Marital BreakdownMarriage is a complex interpersonal relationship. Among the reasons for marriage are emotional, financial, spiritual, and religious ones. In some religions marriage is considered to be a sacred bond between a man and a woman and to break it up is viewed as a blasphemous act. However, nowadays divorce is becoming an everyday process and people do not even blink if a

Causes and Consequences of the Reformation

1039 words - 4 pages Causes and Consequences of the ReformationThere were several causes of the Reformation. Some of them were short-term causes and others were long-term causes. One of the long-term causes of the Reformation was that many people thought that the Church was not following the Bible. For example, many people were unhappy with the idea of indulgences. Indulgences were gifts that people gave to the Church so their sins would be forgiven. In 1517 Luther

The Causes and Consequences of Global Warming

859 words - 3 pages hurricanes, and melting of ice-burgs have been increasing. Many scientists have agreed that that global warming is in fact still occurring as we speak. In the article "Global Warming: Confronting the Realities of Climate Change” it states that the signs are clear. The earth’s temperature has increased over the years. It has been shown and proven that global warming is still in effect because the consequences of this problem are still increasing

Similar Essays

Poverty And Pakistan Essay

637 words - 3 pages development, societal norms and values. But the contents of the needs are more or less the same everywhere. Hunger, lack of shelter, being sick and unable to see a doctor, no access to school and education, joblessness, fear of the future are all the constituents of the Poverty. It also encompasses lack of opportunities, expression, representation and freedom. Pakistan is a low income developing country. In Pakistan, like other developing countries

Poverty Reduction Strategies In Pakistan Essay

3139 words - 13 pages international financial organizations (IFIs). This paper will trace the adoption and development of the structural adjustment and poverty reduction strategies (PRSs) adopted in Pakistan over the past two decades, highlighting the recurrent failures and shortcomings of orthodox IFI strategies.In Pakistan, structural adjustment has officially been a rather stop-start process. While the first structural adjustment loans were issued during the tenure of

Floods: Causes And Consequences Essay

3027 words - 12 pages IntroductionWithin the conceptual framework of this research, I would like to elaborate on causes and consequences of floods. There are always floods somewhere in the world. They threat big communities with millions of people, their lives and properties. Big floods always draw international attention. In order to support my discussion about floods with concrete examples, I will talk about causes and consequences of flood using Mississippi River

Causes And Consequences Of Human Trafficking In Haiti

1508 words - 6 pages the effects of these humanitarian crises may not be currently viable, however, there are small steps which can be taken to move Haiti in the right direction. Through applying the two highlighted JUHAN objectives, understanding the causes and the consequences of a humanitarian crisis, to human trafficking in Haiti, our perception of the country evolved, and we became more aware of their circumstances. From this we were able to conclude rational