Power In Negotiations Essay

2453 words - 10 pages

Negotiation is a fundamental form of dispute resolution involving two or more parties (Michelle, M.2003). Negotiations can also take place in order to avoid any future disputes. It can be either an interpersonal or inter-group process. Negotiations can occur at international or corporate level and also at a personal level. Negotiations often involve give and take acknowledging that there is interdependence between the disputants to some extent to achieve the goal. This means that negotiations only arise when the goals cannot be achieved independently (Lewicki and Saunders et al., 1997). Interdependence means the both parties can influence the outcome for the other party and vice versa. The negotiations can be win-lose or win-win in nature. The disputant will either try to force the other parties to conform to their demands or try to formulate a solution which satisfies both parties. The nature of their relationship during the negotiation is linked to the nature of their interdependence, the way negotiations are piloted and the final outcomes for the disputants (Lewicki and Saunders et al., 1997). Effective negotiators try to comprehend the ways in which other disputants may alter or readjust their positions during the whole process. This is comprehended by looking at how other disputants alter their positions during previous negotiations. Negotiations also involve a desired amount of information exchange and try to influence the other disputant’s outcome. This process of give and take is necessary to achieve a favourable agreement. Disputants usually will not want to cooperate if they sense a lack of willingness to compromise from the other party’s side.
The political scientist Robert Dahl (1957:202), defines power as: “A has power over B to the extent that he can get B to do something B would not otherwise do. A person or group cannot have power in isolation. Power has to be exercised or deployed, or has the potential of being deployed in relation to some other person or group. Power is similar to a currency exchange. It is meaningless unless linked or compared as an exchange commodity. Power is never linked to price, but always to value.” Power in negotiations can be perceived or real which affects the final negotiation outcome. Generally all disputants have some power to an extent which is used to achieve a favourable outcome. It is unlikely the power balance stays consistent, power shifts throughout the negotiation process. Knowing how the power works and how to use power to achieve desirable outcome is important for successful negotiations. The notion of parity in power is vital in relationships between the disputants. The parity in negotiation is when one party perceives that the other party can oppose any form of power with dissimilar or similar form of power (Lewicki and Saunders et al., 1997). Power parity means there will be a balance in power positioning to some extent. The two different objective powers involving in the bargaining...

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