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Predictor Variables Of Teenage Pregnancy And Effectiveness Of Prevention Programs

2956 words - 12 pages

Predictor Variables of Teenage Pregnancy and Effectiveness of Prevention Programs.Each year approximately one million U.S. teenagers become pregnant -- 11 percent of all women aged 15 to 19 and 20 percent of those who are sexually active become pregnant (AGI, 1998). There are many researched predictor variables associated with teenage pregnancy. Included are self-perception, household statistics, child abuse, athleticism, and intent. This research report highlights these trends of indicators or teenage pregnancy in addition to the effectiveness of a variety of different pregnancy prevention program.Young, Martin, Young and Ting (2001) applied two theory's regarding teenage girl's ...view middle of the document...

272) as compared to those who did not become pregnant in their teens (M = 10.836). (Young, Martin, Young & Ting, 2001)Berry, Shillington, Peak and Hohman (2002) sampled 5053 multi-ethnic female adolescents and researched the relationship between teenage pregnancy and adolescent female's self esteem, education, substance abuse, and poverty. An adolescent pregnancy was defined as a pregnancy at age nineteen or under. 1541 of the sample women had already experienced adolescent pregnancy. 47.1% of the teenagers who experienced pregnancy were in economic poverty compared to 25.8% of teenagers without pregnancy. The average level of education of the sample adolescent's parents yielded significant results as well. The parents of the non-pregnant group had parents with eleven years or more of formal education compared to the parents of the pregnant group who received less than ten years of formal education. The pregnant group also showed that they received on average two less years of formal education then the control group. The differences in self-esteem and the percentage of pregnant teens to non-pregnant teens in rural communities were insignificant. (Berry, Shillington, Peak and Hohman, 2002)Robinson and Frank (1994) also researched the correlation between self-esteem and teenage pregnancy. In a similarly racially diverse study of 157 adolescent females under the age of nineteen, they showed no relationship between self-esteem and virginity or sexual activity. Sixteen of the 157 females were pregnant. The participants were 40% black, 53% white, 2% Hispanic, and 6% unspecified. Robinson and Frank (1994) used the Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory as one tool to measure the adolescent's self esteem. On a scale of 25, the average female virgin scored a 17.6 and the average female non-virgin scored a 17.3 thus demonstrating that low self-esteem does not lead to teenage pregnancy. (Robinson and Frank, 1994)Stock, Bell, Boyer, and Connell (1997) investigated the relationship between sexual abuse and adolescent female pregnancy. Their sample included 3,128 adolescent females in grades eight, ten and twelve in 70 school districts in Washington State. 5% were American Indian, 6% Asian or Pacific Islander, 3% black, 4% Hispanic and 82% white. 62% were from urban schools. Sexual abuse was reported by 48% of students who had been pregnant at least once and 21% of those who had never been pregnant. In analyses controlling for grade level, girls who had been sexually abused were significantly more likely to report a lack of parental supervision and a history of physical abuse. In each grade, compared with respondents who had no history of abuse, those who had been either sexually or physically abused were approximately twice as likely to have been pregnant, and those who had experienced both sexual and physical abuse were about four times as likely to have had a pregnancy. Respondents who had experienced abuse were twice as likely as others to have had their...

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