Prehistory Essay

1106 words - 4 pages

MEDIJSKO SVEUČILIŠTE U KOPRIVNICISTUDIJ MEDIJSKOG DIZAJNAIva GrubješićKRONOLOŠKE CJELINE PRETHISTORIJE -Seminarski rad-u Koprivnici, 16.10.2013.Kronološki gledano, prethistorija se dijeli na tri cjeline, paleolitik, mezolitik i neolitik. Paleolitik, ili starije kameno doba dijeli se još na: donji paleolitik,.srednji paleolitik i gornji paleolitik. Mezolitik je bio neka vrsta prijelaznog, tranzicijskog razdoblja, te je u svakoj regiji trajao drugačije. Iz neolitičkog razdoblja ne nalazi se mnogo umjetnina, te se smatra da su ljudi u to doba stvarali na drvu ili nekoj sličnoj, nepostojanoj građi. Paleolitik - starije kameno doba (40.000 - 10.000 U starijem kamenom dobu ljudi su počeli koristiti oruđa, pažljivo su birali i oblikovali kamenje i motke za svakodnevnu uporabu. Klesanje kamena je bila prva vještina za koju postoje dokazi, te s time počinje faza ljudskog razvoja. S klesanjem se pojavljuje špiljska umjetnost: na kamenim površinama špilja nalaze se najupečatljivija umjetnička djela iz ovog razdoblja, prikazi životinja koji su bili urezani, oslikani ili isklesani. Najstarije poznate slike, nastale prije više od 30.000 godina, nalaze se u špilji Chauvet u jugoistočnoj Francuskoj, te prikazuju bijesne lavove, pantere, medvjede, jelen, mamute, bikove, ptice, te poneki ljudski lik. Obrisi tih životinja su veoma sigurni i čvrsti, te su stvorenja veoma izražajna. Osim Chauveta, špilja Lascaux (regija Dordogne, Francuska) također je oslikana prikazima životinja koje se utrkuju, neke su naznačene crnom linijom, a neke ispunjene zemljanim bojama. Stil oslikavanja u ovim je špiljama isti, iako je vremenska razdvojenost nekoliko tisuća godina, a to nam govori kako je paleolitička kultura bila veoma stabilna.Još jedan bitan lokalitet jest i Altmira u sjevernoj Španjolskoj, gdje su slike jako dobro očuvane.Osim špiljske umjetnosti, ljudi iz tog razdoblja radili su i crteže i rezbarije izrađene od kosti, roga ili kamena, veličine dlana. Vješto su ih oblikovali kremenim oruđem. U špilji u jugozapadnoj Njemačkoj nađeni su najstariji kipići od bjelokosti mamuta, stari oko 30.000 godina. Rezbarije su nastajale prepoznavanjem i doradom sličnosti, što znači da su ljudi tražili posebne oblike kamena koje bi samo bilo potrebno malo urediti kako bi postale neka smislena figurica. Naprimjer, pupak Willendorfske Venere, središnja točka lika, prirodna je udubina u kamenu. Mezolitik - srednje kameno doba (10.000 - 6.500 Mezolitik je bio tranzicijsko razdoblje. Ovdje su se lovci/sakupljači polako transformirali u poljodjelce. Što se duže povlačio led u nekoj regiji, duže je trajalo mezolitsko...

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