This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Prenatal Effects Of Cocaine Exposure Essay

1710 words - 7 pages

In the past it had been thought that prenatal cocaine exposure has severely harmful effects on all aspects of mental functioning, however, recent studies have shown that this exposure does not have as bleak and far reaching negative effects as was previously thought. Recently researchers have pinpointed certain aspects of mental functioning which seem to be altered by this prenatal exposure. One of these mental areas is that of selective attention, and this paper will summarize and review two empirical studies which examine the relationship of prenatal cocaine exposure to selective attention early in life.Prenatal Cocaine exposure impairs Selective Attention: Evidence from serial reversal and extra dimensional shift tasks (Garavan, H., Morgan, R. E., Mactutus, C. F., Levitsky, D. A., Booze, R. M., & Strupp, B. J. 2000.) was an animal study (conducted with rats) which examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on the learning and attention of young rats. This study built upon recent research and asked the question; "Which cerebral tasks does prenatal cocaine exposure disrupt?" The major goal of this study was to clarify the ways in which the thinking of young rats exposed to cocaine prenatally, differed from unexposed rats.The researchers expected that both learning and attention would be affected by the prenatal exposure, and anticipated using in depth analysis to determine the precise cognitive processes which were interfered with.To accomplish this two groups of rats were created; half were surrogates (rats who were not operated upon) and half were catheterized (surgically altered to allow regular, intravenous injection). All rats were impregnated by a male. Of the catheterized group half were administered cocaine (at a dose equal to a low, human recreational dose) daily, whilst the other half were injected with saline. After the babies were all born the cocaine exposed babies were given to the surrogate mothers to avoid the confounding treatment of different maternal behavior due to the effects of cocaine. Once the babies were weaned they were all shipped to Cornell University for a 2-3 week adjustment period which was followed by behavioral testing.One male and one female from each group were given six different tests. The first was an Olfactory Serial Reversal Learning Task which involved the rats learning to discriminate between two different odors for a reward, and then learning to respond to the previously incorrect odor as correct, for the same reward. The second was also an Olfactory Serial Reversal Learning Task, but this time three different odors were used. Finally the rats were administered a series of four Extra Dimensional Shift Tasks ( EDS's), which concerned mixing up olfactory and spatial dimensions i.e. sometimes certain ports were chosen as correct for reward, and sometimes one of three odors was chosen as correct.Hundreds of trails were given and the experiment was thoroughly controlled. Certain criterions were...

Find Another Essay On Prenatal Effects of Cocaine Exposure

The Effect of Exposure to Alcohol During Prenatal Development

2993 words - 12 pages ., Toga, A. W. (2008b). Abnormal cortical thickness and brain-behavior correlation patterns in individuals with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. Cerebral Cortex, 18(1), 136-144. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhm039 Tajuddin, N. F., Orrico, L. A., Eriksen, J. L., & Druse, M. J. (2003). Effects of ethanol and ipsapirone on the development of midline raphe glial cells and astrocytes. Alcohol, 29, 157-164. doi:10.1016/S0741-8239(03)00024-7 Xie, N., Yang, Q

Effects of Prenatal Maternal Stress on Development

2329 words - 9 pages Although there are many factors that affect the development of the fetus, research on the specific effects of prenatal maternal stress and the resulting negative outcomes for the development of the fetus will be reviewed. While there is knowledge of these harmful effects in scientific and medical communities, researchers are still in the midst of discovering the results of these negative effects on human development. An overall review of the

What are the effects of Cocaine?

1531 words - 6 pages which a user can smoke.(Goldberg) Cocaine has many different effects on the user depending on the method of delivery. There are three different methods a user can deliver cocaine to his body. Those three methods are by snorting powdered cocaine, injecting powdered cocaine, or smoking crack cocaine. Snorting it damages the nose and sinuses, and regular use can cause nasal perforation.(Goldberg) Injecting it can bring out severe allergic reactions

Mind Over Matter: The Effects of Cocaine

679 words - 3 pages Coca plants may be just a plant. However, coca contains a popular and much known element that is extracted from its leaves and traced back many decades ago. An element that is manipulated and can be transformed into a mind altering, euphoric, and abused substance. The effects of Cocaine are not only to the body, but our main control center, the Central Nervous system. Whether snorted or smoked cocaine’s psychoactive effects are known to be

The Adverse Effects of Exposure to Benzene

1590 words - 6 pages practicable steps in ensuring no one at work is exposed to benzene above the permissible exposure level (PEL) specified in regulations. The prescribed permissible exposure limit (long term) for benzene is 1 ppm over an 8-hour working day and a 40-hour workweek. [3] These exposure standards are usually set based on risk evaluation using data obtained from human and/or animal health effects studies. [4] Thus, this paper will discuss the effects of

Effects of Smoking and Occupational Exposure

1750 words - 7 pages increases, the resident may not be aware without a carbon monoxide detector or until clinical symptoms develops. Clinical manifestations include lethargy, mental status changes, headaches, and mucous membranes that are cherry-red in color (Copstead & Banasik). With exposure to carbon monoxide, the potential lung disease processes that can occur are hypoxia and respiratory failure (Copstead & Banasik). Because the usual incidence of exposure

The Effects of Smoking Bans on Victims of Exposure to Second Hand Smoke

1149 words - 5 pages The Effects of Smoking Bans on Victims of Exposure to Second Hand Smoke Exposure to second hand smoke, which for the purposes of this report will be designated SHS, poses extremely detrimental health risks for any and all individuals who consider themselves non-smokers, especially young children and pregnant women. SHS is estimated to contribute to heart attacks in nonsmokers and causes nearly 53,800 deaths in the United States alone on an

Research on the Effects of Japanese Quails Exposure to Synthetics Hormones

860 words - 4 pages Previous literature has found that various environmental contaminants, such as endocrine disrupters have detrimental effects on organisms such as the Japanese quails. A vast amount of studies have been conducted to analyze characteristics such as reproductive behavior in mammals however the current study adds on knowledge to an understudied population, the avian species specifically the Japanese quail. Exposure to these estrogen receptor

The Effects of Social Interaction and Odor Exposure on Food Preferences in Sprague Dawley Rats

2971 words - 12 pages known as a conditioned taste aversion (lin2008). Early research regarding taste aversion in rats suggested that rats develop an aversion to water consumed before radiation exposure. The results of the study suggest that the rats avoided the water due to the adverse effects experienced from the radiation (garcia1966). Rats have leveraged their nature as a social species to create social adaptations that prevent ingesting poisonous substances. Adult

The Negative Effects of Mass Media and Exposure to America’s Youth

1098 words - 4 pages , and attitudes of our children and adolescence. Companies spend billions of dollars per year alone marketing substance abuse, sex, and violence thT is captruing the attention of Americas young. Our world is surrounded with unlimited advertisements through mass media aimed at America’s youth with documented proof pertaining to the noticeable impact of advertisements and the effects on the health, behavior and attitudes targeted at children and

The Negative Effects of Prenatal Testing

2526 words - 10 pages Prenatal tests show the possibility of a child having a genetic disorder, such as Down Syndrome which leads many parents to choose abortion. When it comes to prenatal testing there are many different testing options. Screening tests for example, which are the first tests that are done on the fetus. During the first ten to thirteen weeks of a pregnancy, a woman can get a first trimester screening done. This is an ultrasound and

Similar Essays

The Effects Of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure On Cognitive Development

1667 words - 7 pages . Deering, S.H. (2004). Abruptio placentae. Department of obstetrics and gynecology: Madigan army medical center, 2, 3. Klitsch M., (2002). Children with prenatal cocaine exposure have elevated risk of cognitive impairments at least until age two. Perspectives on sexual and reproductive health, 1-2. Levinthal, C.F. (2005). Effects of psychoactive drugs on pregnant women and newborns (Ed.), Drugs, behavior, and modern society (4th ed., pp.45

Effects Of Cocaine Essay

716 words - 3 pages What is Cocaine? A drug obtained from leaves of a so American plant that can result in severe mental trust and is sometimes used in medicine. Cocaine is one of the most dangerous and illegal drug, it’s mostly produced in so many countries (Mexico, Columbia, United States). There are many psychological and physical effects from cocaine usage that could damage someone by not even knowing how. The problems related to cocaine abuse have an effect

Effects Of Bpa Exposure Essay

2420 words - 10 pages exposure and multiple effects ଝ. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 127(1-2), 27–34. Rubin, M. (2007). Antenatal exposure to DES: lessons learned.. Future concerns. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 62(8), 548-555. Schonfelder, G., Froedrich, K., & Chahoud, I. (2004). Developmental effects of prenatal exposure to Bisphenol A on the uterus of rat offspring. Neoplasia, 6(5), 584-594. Susiarjo, M., Hassold, T. J., Freeman, E., & Hunt, P. a

Effects Of Radiation Exposure Essay

1354 words - 6 pages woods. I saw a sign, another symbol of the wretched humans that had ruined my home. This one said: “Radiation causes fever, headache, and nausea. White blood cell counts may be lowered. See a doctor if you have any of these symptoms, and EVACUATE IMMEDIATELY!” They didn’t have to tell me twice, once I saw that sign, I knew that everything in my environment was trashed, and I was experiencing the effects of radiation exposure. Sighing, I continued on my journey to find a new home, at least I survived the nuclear disaster that ruined my home, baring all of the trees and polluting virtually everything.