Theory: Intersectionality and Social Justice
Traditional psychological theory consists of concepts derived from the study of a White-male-dominated society. Contemporary social psychology must consider the diversity that dominates the 21st century. The intersectionality theory considers the complication of the individual’s memberships in more than one group. Cross-disciplinary feminist research facilitated the development of intersectionality to acknowledge the collective meanings and effect of a person’s fitting into one sex category. Magnusson, (2011) suggests the person’s relationship to other social categories can confuse various constructs, such as gender previously used as variable in research. She argues that the study of social diversity must find innovative methods to consider the influence of main and sub sociocultural and political groups in the individuals’ lives. Magnuson (2011) argues that the validity of theories conducted without these considerations is in question.
The theory of intersectionality suggests that one should not experience judgment in regard to gender, age, sexuality, or any combination of groups to which one belongs. A citizenship theory of social justice reflects two central moral concepts; the equal worth of each human; and the importance of societal diversity. This theory triggers a broader model of citizenship that includes a mandate that society reorganize to include everyone as a viable and valued member (Duffy, 2010).
Theory: Productivity at Work
Diversity creates conflicts
Diversity facilitates creativity
Diversity brings legitimacy and value
Theories relating to social categorization and identity conclude that affiliation in a group provides natural social boundaries creating opportunity for conflict (Ely, 2004). Group members generally demonstrate tendencies to favor in-group members and discriminate against others. However, other research argues that diversity provides a competitive advantage by introducing a larger resource pool to deliver insight into complex problems (Ely 2004).
Paletz, Peng, Ere, and Masllach, (2004) review ethnic composition literature to reveal finding supporting the concept that heterogeneous teams surpass homogeneous teams when working on innovative tasks. However, they assert that these findings stem from the assumption that ethnic diversity correlates with a variety of attitudes, abilities, and understandings. The theory suggests that the differences in skills and knowledge will precipitate a larger range of ideas (Paletz, et al., 2004).
Ely and Thomas (2001) theorize relating to the effect of cultural diversity on production. They provide three perspectives regarding workforce diversity. Their research claims three theoretical contributions. They offer a social theory relating to the methods of shaping an individual’s identity, facilitating relationships in the diverse group, and work construction in the culturally...