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Prespectives On Motivation: The Thought And Content Process

1737 words - 7 pages

"Compare and contrast (1) the content and (2) the thought process perspectives of motivation, using specific theories (other than Maslow's) to highlight the two perspectives.Motivation can be defined as a psychological process that leads to choice of behaviour resulting in some level of job performance, depending on the intensity, desire, energy generated by the individual (Blair 2002). In the workplace, employees are expected to perform an expected output, what makes employees perform to reach this goal is a combination of factors, namely motivation. Motivation theories consist of a combination of needs, incentives, goals and reinforcers (Blair 2002). Due to the complexity of motivation, there are many perspectives on motivation. Perspectives can be defined as the many views, perceptions and attitudes that people may approach on a topic. There are differing perspectives on the subject of motivation, which has inevitably paved the way for many theories to be devised.Motivation is an internal force that produces a person's performance depending on one's ability and working conditions. The motivation process is comprised of two parts, the needs theory and process or cognitive theory. The need theories explain how we attempt to fulfill our desires (Bartol, Tein, Matthews & Martin, 2003, p. 368). This essay will be discussing the following need theories; Maslow's Hierarchy of needs, McClelland's Acquired-needs theory, and in particular Herzberg's; Two-factor theory, Alderfer's ERG theory. While the need theory argues that we behave as we do due to the internal needs, process theories attempt to isolate thinking patterns used in deciding whether or not to act in a certain way, it focuses on the thought processes of motivation (Bartol, Tein, Matthews & Martin, 2003, p. 374). Cognitive theories try to identify the desire directing behaviour. Theories that fall into this cognitive approach include, Vroom's Expectancy theory, Locke's Goal-setting theory, and Equity theory. Rather than conflicting with each other, these two theories present the many perspectives of motivation (Bartol, Tein, Matthews & Martin, 2003, pp.366-374). Furthermore this essay will also look at applications of these theories in the workplace situation.Motivation need theories explains that our behaviour is affected by how we endeavor to satisfy our desires, Abraham Maslow devised the 'Hierarchy of needs,' which argues that one's needs form a five-level hierarchy (Bartol, Tein, Matthews & Martin, 2003, p.368). The bottom or first level of the hierarchy focuses on our physiological needs, meaning the simple necessities one needs in life such as pay, shelter, food and water. The next level takes into account one's needs to feel secure and safe thus, safety needs, which comprises of job security, safety regulations and insurance. Social needs is the next level up and explains that an individual needs to affiliate and be accepted by others, examples of social needs...

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