Protection of the patients and the healthcare personnel is a key role for the pre-operative nurses. The aim is to prevent the transfer of infection or drug effects from the patient to a second party, may it be the health care personnel or other patients for instance, the control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to the patient in a ward or to the visitors. The fundamental principle to infection prevention is breaking the elements required for and infection to occur. This chain entails the pathogen source, a susceptible host, and a method of transmission.
The clinical practice issue selected was breastfeeding analgesics and anaesthetics, and the conditions that instigate their use amongst breastfeeding mothers. In general, pharmacology, one method of drug excretion is through the breast milk by lactating mothers. This may consequently result to negative effects on the infant. It is therefore important for the clinical staff to come up with ways of controlling anesthetics for the post and pre-partum period (Halpern, 2005).
The key goal is to offer recommendations for safe and correct administration of the pharmacologic agents for anesthesia and pain management amongst breastfeeding mothers during labor, postpartum period and for lactating women during surgery. The article further examines the evidence available currently, for different approaches in labor and pain management on breastfeeding effects.
Maternity care staff should create an informed consent discussion for labor pain management in the prenatal period, and before the onset of labor. The risk analysis should entail what the medical professionals acknowledged and documented about the consequences of the various modalities on labor progress, the risk margins of instrumented and cesarean delivery, and finally the possible effects on the newborn and potential breastfeeding effects.
Spontaneous vaginal birth with no medication, continuous skin-to-skin contact causes to the highest chances of baby-led breastfeeding initiation while longer labors, instrumented births, cesarean section, and isolation of mother and infant upon birth may cause higher risk of poor breastfeeding initiation. Labor pain management approaches may influence these birth outcomes and consequently affect breastfeeding.
Pain tolerance amongst women is based on individual characteristics and differs from different individuals. The labor pains may exceed the woman’s ability to cope or possibly enhance fear or anxiety. Suffering labor pains may lead to increased dysfunctional labor, increased risk of postpartum depression and poorer psychological outcomes, which may affect negatively on breast-feeding; putting into consideration that severe physiological stress in labor causes physiological stress to the newborns, which in turn affect their readiness to breastfeed.
Non-pharmacologic principles for pain management such as hypnosis and acupuncture have effectively been applied in labor pain reduction. Several methods...