This literature review will include the following: (a) the historical overview, (b) importance of American School Counseling Association (ASCA) National Model, (c) educating principals to work with professional school counselors (d) critical incidents that shape principals perceptions, (e) professional school counselors actual and preferred duties and (f) the importance of professional school counselors advocating for themselves. We will conclude with discussion and fruitful areas for future research.
Principals are significant to professional school counselor’s (PSC) identity. Principals are responsible for shaping PSC actual assigned duties. This review will examine principal’s perceptions limiting professional school counselor’s role in the school.
This review will examine principal’s perceptions of professional school counselor’s role and its impact on assigned duties.
Professional school counselors are often assigned inappropriate counseling duties. According to ASCA(2004) these included: “registering and scheduling all new students, computing grade point averages, signing excuses for students who are tardy or absent, performing disciplinary actions, sending home students who are not appropriately dressed….(p.3). ( (Herrington & William, 2005-2006)explain that these duties prevent PSC from dealing with “key dimensions of school counseling such as, individual and group counseling, consultation, case management, program development and implementation of school wide programs”(p.4). Several studies by (Chata & Loesch, 2007; Cashwell, Clemens & Milsom, 2009) believe that PSC who accept non-counseling duties are not satisfied with their jobs as well as, exhibit high levels of stress. These inappropriate duties according to (Scarborough & Culbreth, 2008) continue to confuse school personnel regarding PSC role and function within the school building (p.447-448).
Brief Historical Overview
The foundation of a school counselor dates back to 1908. Elford’s article (as cited in Hardy, 2008) informs his readers about Frank Parsons, the founding father of Vocational Bureau of Boston. Reportedly, Frank Parsons is responsible for defining who school counselors are. School counselors are “someone who helps students to connect to careers” (p.18). In 1930 E. G. Williamson’s article ( as cited in Lambie& Williamson, 2004) explained that Frank Parsons changed vocational guidance to school counseling. Parsons defined school counseling as “how to counsel children” (p.18). In 1953, Truman Kelly at Columbia University (as cited in Hardy, 2008) called school counselors “educational guidance” (p. 18). Reportedly, this means, “aiding students in their choices of studies” (p. 18). Today, according to ( Lambie & Williamson,2004) school counselors are certified or licensed Professional School Counselors with a Master’s Degree or higher “who deliver comprehensive school counseling program encouraging all...