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Concepts Of Circuit Switching Systems Essay

1423 words - 6 pages

Concepts of Circuit Switching Systems

A circuit switched system is one where a dedicated connection must be
set up between two nodes before they may communicate. For the duration
of the communication, that connection may only be used by the same two
nodes, and when the communication has ceased, the connection must be
explicitly cancelled. A good example of this is the early telephone
exchange systems, where one caller would ask the operator to connect
them to a receiver, where the end result was a physical electrical
connection between the subscriber's telephones for the duration of the
call. The primary characteristics of a circuit switched network are
fixed-bandwidth and low transmission delay once a connection has
established. Also it can be quite expensive as when traffic is low on
a virtual circuit unused transmission capacity is wasted i.e. during
international or long distance calls the charges will add up until the
call is ended, even when either party are not speaking. When data is
sent it must arrive in sequencing order and at a constant arrival

References: Introduction to Networking, WestNet Learning Technologies

Packet Switching Systems

Packet-Switched networks, this networks divides all messages on the
LAN (local area network) into small chunks called packets and attaches
information to the front of the packet that identifies the recipient.
The packets from all the machines on the local area network are placed
on a high-bandwidth cable running through all the machines on the
network. As packets move around the network, each machine analyses the
header to see if the packet is for it. If not, it is sent further on.
While packet switching is a more flexible approach than circuit
switching, it does have a few problems. The primary problem is network
traffic. As the number of nodes on the network increases, the network
traffic increases too, sometimes reaching the network limit. Another
problem with packet switching is that there is no guarantee of packets
getting from source to destination, which is one of the strong points
of circuit switching.

References: Introduction to Networking, WestNet Learning Technologies

Cell Switching Systems (ATM)

ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) is an international standard for a
high-speed connection oriented, cell-switching technology. Cell
switching closely resembles packet switching in that it breaks a data
stream into packets which are then placed on lines that are shared by
several streams. One major difference is that cells have a fixed size,
each being 53 bytes while packets can have different sizes.


General Routing and Congestion Control Algorithms

Routing is the act of moving information across an...

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