The use of the six principles of training by a 100m sprinter would greatly improve the athlete’s performance. This is because the progressive overload, specificity, reversibility, variety, training thresholds and warm up/cool down principles all greatly affect the performance of any athlete. The principles of training can be employed in order to improve all aspects of fitness, from flexibility to strength and aerobic endurance.
The progressive overload principle implies that improvements in fitness only occur when the ‘load’ is progressively increased as the body adapts.
The progressive overload principle is exemplified in strength training, which is necessary to improve the performance of a 100m sprinter.
For example, say the sprinter were to begin with a 30 kg weight. It puts just enough stress on the muscles, without causing excessive fatigue or injury. After a while of training with this load, however, the body adapts to the weight, and the muscles are no longer under stress. It is at this point that extra weight should be added, or no more strength gains will be made.
If utilizing the progressive overload principle a 100m sprinter would make gains in fitness. These gains are not limited to strength gains, but can also apply to gains in all other aspects of fitness.
The second principle of training is reversibility. Reversibility, when kept in mind, can be used to improve the performance of any athlete, including a 100m sprinter.
If, after progressively increasing the weight that the sprinter from the previous example was lifting, he were to stop training all together, the effects of this training would gradually be reversed.
In order to improve the performance of the 100m sprinter he must always remember the reversibility principle, and continue with his training. For, if he were to not consider this principle, and discontinue training, he would suffer reversibility and all the gains he had made would be gradually lost.
Through exploring the progressive overload and reversibility principles it becomes evident that there are three stages to fitness. An individual’s fitness levels (strength, aerobic capacity, flexibility etc.) can either be increasing, decreasing or staying the same.
In order for a 100m sprinter to increase their fitness levels they would need to utilize the progressive overload principle, if he were looking to become less fit he need only keep the reversibility principle in mind, and discontinue his training. Similarly, if the 100m sprinter wanted to maintain his current level of fitness he would have to maintain his current workload.
Therefore, a 100m sprinter’s fitness levels are a direct reflection of the load they are training at.
The third principle of training that could be used by a 100m sprinter to improve their performance is specificity. The specificity principle implies that in order to make effective gains, the training must be specific to the game or event.
For example, if a 100m sprinter were to train...