Privation's Effects on a Child
The definition of privation is; "the lack of any attachments as
distinct from the loss of attachments".
Some psychologists have assumed that all experiences of deprivation
were the same however there are some key differences, and in
conclusion Rutter explained the main difference between deprivation
and privation was that;
Deprivationoccurs when a child has already formed an attachment and is
then and is then taken away from them, In contrast;
Privationoccurs when a child has never formed an important attachment.
Many psychologists have done different research into the effects of
privation, some support the idea that children can recover from early
privation, others say they can't.
Bowlby has stated that without an early attachment, a child will never
be able to attach later on in life, so you would expect this to have
an adverse effect on future relationships. Bowlby (1964) did a study
on juveniles who had been separated from their mothers at an early age
and showed that those showing signs of affectionless psychopathy (for
example, an inability to experience guilt) were likely to have been
caused through privation rather than deprivation.
Dennis (1960) did a study on Iranian orphans and concluded that there
is a critical stage for intellectual development before the age of
two. Children adopted from the orphan after the age of two never
gained the same IQ as a normal child whereas children adopted earlier
could. This research supports Bowlby's theory and would suggest that
there is a crucial period in which it is possible to reverse the
effects of early privation. Clarke and Clarke (1976) argued that
effects of early privation are more easily reversed than previously
thought. After reviewing Dennis's research they concluded that, "The
prolonged time spent in the institution has not had a direct,
irreversible effect on intellectual functioning, but has had effects
which may interfere with future learning and development."
One major study on the effects of privation was the longitudinal study
of privation. This was a series of studies by Babara Tizard and her
collegues. They followed a group of 65 children who had been taken
into care before they were 4 months old. Before the age of four they
had many different carers and so were unable to form any strong bonds
but still had a mean IQ of 105 at the age 4 ½ which shows that their
cognitive development was unaffected by maternal deprivation.
By the age of four, 24 children had been adopted, 15 had returned to
their biological parents and the rest stayed in the institution. In
later stages of the children's lives (8 and 16) it was found that most
of the adopted children had formed strong bonds with their...