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Problems Associated With Drought In Africa, And Proposed Solutions

2036 words - 8 pages

Africa is a continent that suffers from many problems in many areas. The name of the continent has become synonymous with poverty, hunger and disease. These problems are connected with each other significantly. Many observers believe that the successive African crises are because of some reasons such as violence in most African countries, corruption that is rooted in the majority of African governments and stagflation which puts the continent in the mouth of hunger and unemployment(Stewart, 2004). However, there are other factors which are responsible for Africa's crises such as unstable environment, the growing population and agricultural difficulties (African ecology, 1990). In fact, climate change leads to drought in many parts of Africa, which forces many people to move from dry areas to areas where they can find a way to live. Usually this migration leads to conflict between indigenous people and migrants in order to obtain water and grazing land. The conflict may develop into war or genocide. This scenario happened in Darfur, and may occur in more than one place in Africa as long as drought is existent (Brown, 2006). This essay explains some causes of the drought in Africa, and suggests some promising solutions.
The effects of climate change are tragic and very heavy. Temperature has increased in the last century by an average of 0.7°C in Africa (Ogodo, 2006, p1). As a result of this increase, there are more than 900 million hungry people in Africa, and in less than a generation, 40% of the African wild life will be lost, and the African crops will decline by 5 % (Ogodo, 2006, p1). One of the problems which was expected in a report of the UN is that floods may kill more than 70 million people in the future in some African cities because of climate change (Ogodo, 2006, p1). Desertification, drought and reducing a large number of the wild animals in Africa are obvious phenomena in Africa (Ogodo, 2006, p1).
Drought, which is a clear manifestation of global warming, has severe effects on the African arena. Large parts in Africa has turned into deserts in a short period; for example, within two decades, around 6700 hectares of forest, which contained different animals such as monkeys, deer and buffalo, have become a barren area (Ogodo, 2006, p2). Indeed, More than 300000 people died because of drought in the Sahel in the seventies (Scott, 2005, p2). The fact that 40% of African income depends on agriculture, and 70% of the African workers are engaged in agriculture means that the drought is certain death to the continent (Scott, 2005, p2). In the future, some believe that around 66% of African space could be dry because of deforestation and grazing (African ecology, 1990). In addition, many observers believe that the drought is the origin of all the African crises (Brown, 2006). Over the history of the continent, different tribes and races have fought over water sources , which lead some times to genocides (Scott, 2005, p5) For...

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