Process Manufacturing Tecnology. Essay

3638 words - 15 pages

INTRODUCTIONThe aim of this assignment is to examine the production of a pharmaceutical intermediate. A method of processing is to be selected and justified, and a scale of the operation identified including the major items of processing plant and method operation. The implication of the selection with respect to safety, health and environment should be outlined for current and future operations.The reaction was initially carried out in chloroform. Due to the undesirable health properties of chloroform it was substituted by dichloromethane. Reaction times with this solvent were extended and it was subsequently replaced by an excess of Liquid A.The dissolution of Solid A in Liquid A and the subsequent reaction both appear to be endothermic. Gaseous waste products from the reaction can be a problem if not controlled or abated. Liquid A loss may also be significant. Neither of the reactions will proceed satisfactorily at room temperature. The reaction of the Solid A and Liquid A is much faster than the break down of the intermediate to Liquid B. In order to raise the reaction rate of the second reaction the temperature must be raised and to achieve this the excess Liquid A is removed by distillation. Typical reaction/temperature curves are appended. The typical reaction efficiency is 97% with respect to Solid A.Final recovery of the Liquid B is by distillation at 55 deg. C under vacuum.There are some solid wastes from the reaction including the residual Solid A. These wastes are soluble in Liquid B.The required purity of Liquid B is >99%.Initial production rate is: 100 T/aThe forecast demand is: 110 T/a in year 2125 T/a in year 3160 T/a in year 4206 T/a in year 5There is no forecast beyond year 5 but it is anticipated that demand could increase by a further 30%.Product is required 9 months from now.Solid A costs .0/kg.Solid B costs .0/kg.The reactions are the following:Solid A + Liquid A ? Intermediate + 2 HCLIntermediate ? Liquid B + COTHE PROBLEMWhat we really have to make clear in this case study is what process we will follow and explain the reasons for our choice. We also have to specify the equipment we are going to use and the way we are going to operate it, always bearing in mind the legislation and regulations about the health and the environment.PROCESS SELECTIONThe selection of a batch or continuous process, and whether with single or multiple streams, affects process reliability, fire hazard, and business continuity if plant is damaged. Special location of critical units and larger buffer stocks to keep downstream plant in operation using external supplies may be worthwhile. Continuous processes hold less material in the process, they have a fixed throughput. Cyclic fluctuations and the number of hazardous activities (such as entering vessels) normally occur less frequently, and automatic control can be implemented more readily. Also, dangerous intermediates can be processed without storage. Batch processes may be easier to isolate...

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