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Producers And Development Of Genetically Modified Organisms

1496 words - 6 pages

Until very recently animals and plant breeders could not modify the genetic code of living things. They were limited by the need to work with the variation that already exists in nature. Even when they tried to add to that variation by introducing mutation, the change they produced in the DNA was random and unpredictable. But now biologists are able to go right to the genetic code and rewrite an organism’s DNA. Biologists now transfer genes at will from one organism to another, designing new living things to meet specific needs. Throughout research paper I will be talking about genetically modified organism. I will talk about the procedure and how they are developed.
The big question is how do scientist are to do this? Scientist use their knowledge of the structure of DNA and its chemical properties to study and change DNA molecules. Different techniques are used to extract DNA from cell, to cut DNA into smaller pieces, to identify the sequence of bases in a DNA molecule, and to make unlimited copies of DNA.This process is called genetic engineering, which is basically making changes in the DNA code of living organism. There are in total of three techniques that a biologist does in order to manipulate DNA. It is a process to change DNA.
First one is DNA extraction which is when biologist extracts cells from the DNA by a chemical procedure. Second is cutting because DNA molecules are too large to be analyzed, biologist cut them precisely into smaller fragments using restriction enzymes. Enzymes are used to cut DNA at specific sequence of nucleotides. And also it only cut a DNA only if it matches the sequence precisely. Third is separating DNA is when biologist use a gel and electric voltage so when the powers turns on,DNA molecules which are negatively charged ,move towards the positive end of the gel. One of the rule is that the smaller the DNA fragment, the faster and farther it moves.
So once DNA is in a manageable form, DNA sequence can be read, studied, and even changed. Knowing the sequence of an organism’s DNA allows researchers to study specific genes to compare them with the genes of other organisms and to try to discover the function of different genes and gene combination. There are also techniques that scientist use, to read and change the sequence of DNA molecule.
Reading the sequence: researchers use a clever chemical trick to read DNA by determining the order of its bases. A single strand of DNA whose sequence of bases is not known is placed in a test tube.DNA polymerase ,the enzyme that copies DNA, and four nucleotides bases,A,T,C, and G,are added to the test tube. As the enzyme goes to work, it uses unknown strand as a template to make one new DNA strand after another. The tricky part is that researchers also add small no of bases that have chemical dye attached. Each time a dye labeled base is added to a new DNA strand, the synthesis of that strand is terminated. When DNA synthesis is completed, the new DNA strand are different...

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