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Pros And Cons Of Cloning Today

897 words - 4 pages

Cloning Today

A clone is a group of organisms that are genetically identical. Most clones

result from asexual reproduction, a process in which a new organism develops

from only one parent. The one process of cloning, called nuclear transfer,

replaces the nucleus of an immature egg with a nucleus from another cell. Most

of the work with clones is done from cultures. An embryo has about thirty or

forty usable cells but a culture features an almost endless supply. When the

nucleus has been inserted into the egg cell, the cell is given an electric shock

to initiate the development. Traditionally this is the sperm?s role. In this

paper we will be discussing the advantages of different types of clones, such as

they are useful for research. We will also be discussing the disadvantages and

different techniques that result from the cloning of different organisms.

First lets start with the history of cloning. The modern era of

laboratory cloning began in 1958 when F.C. Steward cloned carrot plants from

mature single cells placed in a nutrient culture containing hormones. The first

cloning of animal cells took place in 1964. John B. Gurdon took the nuclei from

tadpoles and injected them into unfertilized eggs. The nuclei containing the

original parents? genetic information had been destroyed with ultraviolet light.

When the eggs were incubated, Gurdon discovered that only 1% to 2% of the eggs

had developed into fertile adult toads. The first successful cloning of mammal

was achieved nearly twenty years later. Scientists from Switzerland and the U.S.

successfully cloned mice using a method similar to Gurdon?s, but required one

extra step. After the nucleus was taken from the embryos of one type of mouse,

they were transferred into the embryos of another mouse who served as the

surrogate mother. This mouse went through the birthing process to create the

cloned mice. The cloning of cattle was achieved in 1988, when embryos from prize

cows were transplanted to unfertilized cow eggs whose own nuclei had been

removed. In 1993 the first human embryos were cloned using a technique that

placed individual embryonic cells (blastomeres) in a nutrient culture where the

cells then divided into 48 new embryos. These fertilized eggs did not develop to

a stage that could be used for transplantation into a human uterus.

Cloning can do many good things for our wild life and for our economy.

The process of cloning can save us a lot of money. A crop that is imported to

our country can instead be cloned here. It would also make the product cheaper.

Cloning would also develop stronger plants, resistant to disease, parasites, and

insect damage. With...

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