3. Change 2: Additional Station
The second change is to include an additional station at Madeley, to the west of Newcastle – under –Lyme, Staffordshire.
3.1 Project Management Theory
3.1.1 Theory (3-step model)
Lewin’s 3-step model conceptualises change as a process with three phases, one, unfreezing, two, moving and three, refreezing. The first step for this project would be communicating with those affected by the change to begin a process of re-education thus increasing the receptivity of the client system and balancing the social forces. The second step would be to analyse the information gained from the public and thus identifying alternatives and beginning to alter the magnitude and direction of the project, thus shifting the equilibrium to a new state. Refreezing would be reinforcing the new distribution of forces and consequentially establishing new working practises, policies and procedure that underpin the new state (Zand and Sorensen 2008, Lawman 2014a).
3.1.2 Risk Management
The Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) is a framework that can provide the High Speed Two Ltd with a useful roadmap to help guide them when developing their plans and related processes (Frigo and Anderson 2014). For the second change of building an additional station the framework most is the COSO ERM framework issued in 2014 by Committee of Sponsoring Organisations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). COSO provides a more robust and extensive focus on a broader subject base of enterprise risk management (Frigo and Anderson 2014). The ERM framework identifies and defines eight interrelated components of enterprise risk management “1. Internal Environment, 2. Objective Setting, 3. Event Identification, 4. Risk Assessment, 5. Risk Response, 6. Control Activities, 7. Information and Communication, and 8. Monitoring (Frigo and Anderson 2014).
3.1.3 Change Control
“Change is inevitable in a project manager’s life” (Richman 2011). The project manager has to know how to handle change properly or else that change is going to ruin the project (Lawman 2014b). The change in this project is in the project environment and is the decision to build an additional station at Madeley, resulting in a change in the programme management directives (Lawman 2014b). Due to this scope creep might occur if the change is undocumented within the scope, according to Richman (2011) “too many project managers have found themselves at the end of a project not being able to determine when, why and how changes were made.” As a result of this a project managers needs to keep an issue log, where they state, the project issue number, issue type, author, dates, description and status (Lawman 2014b). A change can be any size therefore even during the planning of the additional stations changes will occur and will have to be controlled. The major change for this project will definitely cause budget implications such as resource cuts and shortened timeline resulting in, key members being pulled, expense...