An EXCELLENT conceited Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet, is a play written by the well-known poet and playwright, William Shakespeare (1564-1616). In most of his plays, Shakespeare utilizes what is known as a Double-Entendre, which is a spoken phrase devised to be understood in multiple ways, especially when one meaning is risqué. The prologue of Romeo and Juliet is an ideal example of Shakespeares technique of utilizing a Double-Entendre.
"Two households, both alike in dignity, In fair Verona, where we lay our scene, From ancient grudge break to new mutiny, Where civil blood makes civil hands unclean" (Prologue 1-4).
"Where civil blood makes civil hands unclean; In this phrase lies the Double-Entendre. Shakespeare describes the blood as civil, meaning: innocent, polite/courteous or simply relating to citizens (i.e. citizens of a town). The word civil is the Double-Entendre, for it has more than one way to be understood. For the first meaning, we will take civil to mean citizens. When Shakespeare uses civil to describe blood, he is referring to the fighting (blood) between fellow civilians, Montague and Capulet, and the next part of the sentence, ...makes civil hands unclean, means that the fighting between these civilians, are drawing other, law-abiding (civil) people and brings them to guilt (unclean) too, in basic terms a civil war.
For the second meaning, we will consider civil to mean polite, courteous, thus giving us a paradoxical situation. When Shakespeare uses this meaning of civil to describe blood, it leaves us to think, how bloodshed between the two civilians, Montague and Capulet, can be regarded as civil. This wouldnt make any sense, but it was Shakespeares intention, to make a paradoxical situation, to show that the supposedly fair town of Verona is in fact lacking fairness and courtesy. For if Verona was in fact civil, its residents would not engage in civil wars. How could civil people have unclean (guilty/blood stained) hands? The paradox continues in the next part, ...makes civil hands unclean. This is basically telling us that the bloodshed between the civilized Montague and Capulet, is attracting other civilized people brings them to guilt. (Note: I was being cynical on the word civilized by putting the word in italics, in the previous sentence). Therefore, when the sentence is read for a second time, the new meaning is: The uncivil bloodshed between Montague and Capulet, attracts other uncivil people to join in on the fighting, and continues to stain their hands with the guilt of violence.Now for...