This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Promising Treatment For Alzheimer's Disease Essay

1639 words - 7 pages

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder(1-3) causing progressive loss of cognitive functions leading to dementia and death.(4) Older age is the highest risk factor for AD (3, 5) and the prevalence of AD rises from 3% among those 65-74years to almost 50% among those >85year(2). An estimated 5.2 million Americans of all ages had AD in 2013(1). It currently affects more than 33.9million people worldwide(4) and is predicted to be affecting more than 80million people worldwide by 2040(3) which makes treating AD a pertinent issue to be dealt with at present.
Epigenetic (defined as reversible regulation of various genome functions, occurring without change in DNA sequence)(6, 7) , modification has recently emerged as one of the pathogenic mechanism for AD(6-8). The three pillars of epigenetic mechanism include DNA methylation, histone modification and non-coding RNA(9). This research mainly focuses on the histone modification in the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment in AD and the therapeutic role of histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) for the same(10-12) . In histones(10, 12, 13) the modification occurs at the N terminal of the molecule which includes histone acetylation(14). Histone acetylation is regulated by the counteracting activities of histone acetyltransferase (HATs), which adds an acetyl group to a lysine residue, resulting in chromatin activation(13, 15) and histone deacetylases(HDAC), which remove acetyl group and linked to chromatin inactivation(14, 16). This relaxes the chromatin structure and allows transcription factors to interact with their target DNA.(10)
Histone acetylation is an important mechanism for memory formation.(17, 18) Recent studies suggest that specific HATs and HDACs are required for memory formation and learning ability in severe neurodegeneration(13). Postmortem studies of AD patients have shown increased HDAC within the hippocampus(19) and lower acetylation over temporal lobe (20). HAT and HDAC influences the level of histone acetylation(14). There are 18 HDCAs that belong to 4 classes according to their sequence homology(11). Among them the HDACs linked to cognitive impairment in AD pathology are thought to be Class 1, HDAC 2 associated with associative and spatial memory impairment.(8) Either activating HAT or inhibiting HDAC can defend histone deacetylation but latter has proven more achievable than former(15)
HDAC inhibitors are classified into 4 main chemical families. 1. Carboxylic acids- eg Sodium butyrate, valporic acid, 4phenylbutyrate acts on Class 1 HDAC. 2. Hydroxamic acid- eg: Trichosatin, SAHA acts on Class 1 and 2 HDCA. 3. Benzamide group- eg: MS275 acts on Class 1 HDAC and 4. Cyclic tetrapeptides- Tapoxin.(15) Researches have focused mainly on class 1 and class 2 HDACi as treatment option for cognitive enhancement in AD.(21-23) The studies conducted on mouse models with AD related neurodegeneration treated by sodium butyrate(24) (Class 1 HDACi) showed rescue of cognitive...

Find Another Essay On Promising Treatment for Alzheimer's Disease


1689 words - 7 pages therapeutic approach for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Pharmacology & therapeutics. 2013 Jul;139(1):41-50. PubMed PMID: 23562602. Pubmed Central PMCID: 3693222. 8. Chouliaras L, Rutten BP, Kenis G, Peerbooms O, Visser PJ, Verhey F, et al. Epigenetic regulation in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. Progress in neurobiology. 2010 Apr;90(4):498-510. PubMed PMID: 20097254. 9. Fischer A, Sananbenesi F, Mungenast A, Tsai LH. Targeting

Should everyone over 65 be screened for Alzheimer's disease in the UK?

1000 words - 4 pages . Currently doctors diagnose Alzheimer’s based on their medical records, family history of the disease, physical exams metabolic tests and blood tests, examination of cerebrospinal fluid for proteins associated with Alzheimer's, evaluations of a patient's mental acuity, and CT or MRI scans that can detect physiological or functional changes in the brain that might be associated with Alzheimer's. However these methods of diagnosis have been proven to be

My sickness, your saviour!!!- creative short story for my biology class explaining the Alzheimer's disease

848 words - 3 pages doctors! They always tell you the painful truth and make you even more depressed! ) Can you imagine me at that time? I guess you would be depressed too in my place! I mean, I was so young to die and the worst thing was that there was no known cure for Alzheimer's disease! (How I hate this word!) I often became irritable or withdrawn as I was struggling with fear and frustration when once commonplace tasks become unfamiliar and intimidating. Even

Artificial Disc Replacement--Evolutionary Treatment for Degenerative Disc Disease

742 words - 3 pages Degenerative disc disease conservative treatment is the treatment I would recommend unless you are in severe pain. If your pain is severe then you may need surgery. There are different treatments for degenerative disc disease.Degenerative disc disease occurs when an IVD becomes worn out because of aging or as a result of cumulative damage or trauma. With degenerative disc disease, the disc does not correctly cushion the vertebrae and distribute

Current Treatment Strategies for Parkinson's Disease; Are the costs to the community of developing new treatment strategies justified?

1293 words - 5 pages Discuss current treatment strategies for Parkinson's disease. How can the patient's quality of life be preserved? Are costs to the community of developing these new treatment strategies justified? Justify your answer.Parkinson's is a neurodegenerative disease, which is caused by a loss of dopamine producing cells in the brain . The disease is progressive and debilitating and is outwardly manifested in tremors, stiffness and rigidity

UNBLINDED BY THE LIGHT: Photobiomodulation for the Treatment of Retinal Degenerative Disease

748 words - 3 pages presented a study that was accomplished by her and her students under the title “UNBLINDED BY THE LIGHT: Photobiomodulation for the Treatment of Retinal Degenerative Disease”. The purpose of this study is to determine whether photobiomodulation with near-infrared is able to treat retinal degeneration diseases. Thus, they hypothesis that the exposure of a rodent model of methanol toxicity to photobiomodulation (PBM) with near-infrared (NIR) could

A Medical Information Recommender System for Disease Prediction and its Treatment

1834 words - 8 pages and breast cancer. They used dierent algorithms for predicting dierent diseases. III PROPOSED WORK In this paper, we are suggesting a medical information recommender system for disease prediction and its treatment. We have used a relative learning step on the proposed system. The other feature of this system will be its cure time prediction. Our system follows the procedure given in the owchart in Figure.1. Figure 1. Flow Chart A. Reading

A two part biology assignment on diseases. Part A is discusses the history, causes, symptoms and treatment of Parkinson's disease. Part B is a proposal for counteracting a mad cow's disease epidemic

1470 words - 6 pages YEAR 12 BIOLOGYDISEASE ASSIGNMENTPART APARKINSON'S DISEASEParkinson's disease was named after Scottish physician James Parkinson, who published a description of the condition, An Essay on the Shaking Palsy, in 1817. Parkinson's disease is a degenerative neurological condition that affects more than 30 000 people in Australia (it is the second most common degenerative neurological condition after Alzheimer's disease). Over the last decade, it's

Are statins an effective treatment for coronary heart disease?

1515 words - 7 pages 1.1 Identify the question and/or problem Cardiovascular Disease or CVD is the disease of the heart and circulatory system. The two main forms of CVD are Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) and stroke. CVD causes more than a quarter of all deaths in the UK, calculating to more than 161,000 deaths each year. Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is the biggest disease people in the UK die from. 1 in 6 men and 1 in 10 women die from CHD. It is responsible for

Alzheimer's Disease

1930 words - 8 pages direction and time. The physician also asks about the patient's family medical history to learn about any past serious illnesses, which may give a hint about the patient's current symptoms. There is no known cure for Alzheimer's disease, and treatment focuses on lessening symptoms and attempting to slow the course of the disease. Drugs that increase or improve the function of brain acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter that affects memory, have

Paper on Alzheimer's disease

955 words - 4 pages This paper is about Alzheimer's disease, a progressive brain disorder that causes a gradual and irreversible decline in memory, language skills, perception of time and space, and, eventually, the ability to care for oneself (Kalat). These symptoms are affected because this disease involves the parts of the brain that control thought, memory, and language (Kalat). German psychiatrist Alois Alzheimer first described Alzheimer's disease in 1906

Similar Essays

Cause, Pathology And Treatment Of Alzheimer's Disease

738 words - 3 pages Cause, Pathology and Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease Growing up in the 80's I remember my mother questioning President Reagan's politics, policies, morality, and even his sanity. Though I would not wish a debilitating disease on anyone, I had to laugh at the irony when I heard Reagan had Alzheimer's Disease(AD). To think that his "I do not recall" line during the Contra scandal may have been true! The idea of the President of

Contrast The Symptoms Of Alzheimer's Disease With Those Of Parkinson's Disease. What Causes These Different Symptoms And How Does This Affect The Treatment Of These Disorders?

3174 words - 13 pages family members is also crucial to achieve a high standard of care for sufferers. As there is no cure for AD, the primary goals of treatment are to(3) Binetti. G, Familial Alzheimer's disease - Accessed on 13/4/05 (Alzheimer Europe, 2005) the quality of life for the person suffering and for his or her caregiver(s). Treatment typically comprises three interrelated

Caring For Family Members With Alzheimer's Disease

4019 words - 16 pages States used results from East Boston in 1980, and applied them, by age and sex, to population projections for the United States from 1990 to 2050. The results of this study showed that in 1980, 11.3 percent of people 65 years of age or older had Alzheimer's disease. By 2050, the number of persons 65 years of age or older that have Alzheimer's disease in the United States is expected to exceed 10 million. (Evans 1990, 273-275)1 This study has a

Caring For A Patient With Alzheimer's Disease

3119 words - 12 pages (aphasia),  problems with body movements (apraxia),  inability to recognise familiar problems (agnosia),  disorientation to time and place,  changes in mood or behaviour,  changes in personality,  loss of motivation,  And repetition (Shire Ireland 2012). In Alzheimer's disease there is an ongoing loss of brain cells. The exact reason for this is unknown. Alzheimer's disease is most prevalent in people over 65 years of age