Properties Of Functional Groups Essay

792 words - 3 pages

Properties of Functional GroupsJordan NixApril 13, 2014Texas A&M University at Galveston, Galveston, TexasINTRODUCTIONWhen determining unknown compounds, performing a qualitative organic analysis can establish the physical, chemical, and spectral properties of chemical. This data can then be used to name the functional groups of each unknown. Each functional group has a specific atomic structure and specific chemical behavior that determines the chemistry for all known organic molecules1. The possible functional groups for the compounds in the experiment are the alkenes, alkanes, alkyl halides, alcohols, esters, and aldehydes.By establishing the unknown's boiling point during distillation, insight can be gained as to the strength of the molecular bonds of the compound. Stronger hydrogen bonds will have higher boiling points, followed by dipole-dipole interactions, and atoms held together by van der Waals forces will have the lowest boiling point2.Density will provide information on the molecular weight of the atoms divided by the molecular volume. This will indicate if "heavier" organic elements, such as Nitrogen or Chlorine, are involved and a possible estimate as to the number of such atoms present3.Solubility level differs depending on whether the compound is of the same polarity as the solvent or if it can form hydrogen bonds with it. This affects the degree of which the compound will dissolve into the solvent, and ringed or branched structures are typically more soluble than straight chain structure3.Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy provides frequencies of the vibrations that occur when covalent bonds absorb infrared light. High energy frequencies display "peaks" relative to the number of bonds and if the vibrations are causing them to stretch or bend. Specific bonds register "fingerprint peaks" which are used to identify the composite functional groups of the tested compound and generate possible molecular structures4.EXPERIMENTALPurification and Physical Properties. A 2.0 mL sample of each unknown was purified by simple distillation using a Hickman still and its boiling point established by measuring its initial vapor temperature in the still with a digital thermometer. The distilled was stored in a stoppered vial. Using an automatic pipet, 0.200 mL of the purified sample was measured into another stoppered via and weighed to the nearest milligram. Its density was then calculated.Chemical Properties. A pipet was used to measure 0.10 mL of the unknown into a test tube. Then 0.10 mL of water was added to the liquid. The test tube was stoppered and shaken for approximately 15 seconds. The liquid was then observed for its degree of solubility. The diluted unknown was tested for its pH level using litmus paper. The purified solution was used to generate an IR report of its spectrum to determine its chemical structure.RESULTSTable 1 shows the data for the properties of each unknown that was gathered during the experiment and their names as...

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