Proponents and opponents of globalization
Many negative and positive thoughts have been given to the process of globalization. The proponents of globalization rather see the benefits of globalization, while the opponents have based their opinions on the disadvantages of globalization.
Proponents have a strong belief in free markets and limited governments intervention. According to Preble (2010), globalization has led to the creation of jobs, higher living standards and a higher variety of goods available to consumers. International trade is one of the driving forces behind globalization. Countries specialize in specific goods wherein it has a comparative advantage. This results in a higher efficiency and productivity and ultimately leading to an improvement of the living standards. As a consequence, export increases. Hereto, more jobs are created, a higher variety of goods are available and international competition has increased. This results in lower prices, keeping the inflation in check (Preble, 2010). Furthermore, Preble (2010) states that the increase of trade in goods and services, foreign direct investment and cross-border investment have been important for the success of globalization. Other important benefits, mentioned by the proponents of globalization, are the promotion of information exchange and high understanding of a variety of cultures. Globalization has led to a world where “democracy has triumph over autocracy” (BBC News, 2000, as stated in Preble, 2010, p. 334).
On the other hand, opponents question if the benefits of globalization compensate the created downsides. In their opinion, globalization has manifested unemployment, poverty and marginalization. Additionally, it has been one of the key drivers behind the financial crises (Gunter & Van der Hoeven, 2004). Greater income inequality exists. With a bottom layer of society getting more poor, while the upper layer is getting more rich. The outsourcing of jobs abroad causes job losses and a decrease in the wages. Efficiency leads to manufacturing sites in countries that offer the lowest controls regarding, costs, taxes, labour standards and environmental controls. Therefore, they generate a “global race to the bottom” (Tonelson, 2000 as cited in Preble, 2010, p. 337). Together with an increasing social, economic and political insecurity the sustainability of the current globalization process is threatened. Even for those who have benefitted from globalization, (Kaplinsky, 2001 as cited in Gunter & Van der Hoeven, 2004). Furthermore, Preble (2010) argues that national cultures and identities are endangered by the increasing amount of media networks. While in the beginning it looked like globalization may have reduced gender imbalances, more recent studies show that gender discrimination still exists (Gunter & Van der Hoeven, 2004).
Both Preble (2010) and Gunter & Van der Hoeven (2004) state that another form of globalization has to be designed. This in order to be...