Protecting Against Terrorist Attacks In Urban Environments: Explosion Protection For Buildings

1940 words - 8 pages

Introduction
Blast protection, until recently, has only needed to be considered when constructing underground shelters and military bunkers. Currently, however, there is a need for urban buildings and similar structures used consistently by the general public to withstand forces from nearby explosions. This need is due to the recent climb in terrorist attacks in urban or crowded environments. These attacks have used the lack of blast resistance in these buildings as a means for creating widespread havoc through detonating an improvised explosive device (IED). These devices range from explosives planted inside a structure to roadside or vehicular bombs. An urban environment causes even relatively small explosions to be extremely potent since their energy is reflected off of walls and other structural components, making the area over which the energy dissipates very concentrated (King 1346).
Traditionally, methods for blast protection in buildings of high importance or bunkers consisted of increasing the cross-sectional area of columns and enhancing the ratio of reinforcement of structural members (Runlin 2866). These methods are ineffective in practical engineering, however, due to the other necessary aesthetic and functional aspects of urban buildings. Another traditional method for personnel protection was to build bomb shelters into these buildings. This method assumes, however, that an attack will be expected; terrorist attacks are typically unexpected. As a result, researchers of blast protection have turned their focus towards finding materials that can help prevent severe structural blast damage without affecting a structure’s aesthetics and/or purpose.
Goals for Reducing Structure Damage
The main reason for protecting the integrity of a structure that is exposed to an explosion is to prevent further loss of life outside of an initial blast. Structures that collapse in an urban environment result in casualties inside the building and also result in collateral damage that may cause nearby structures to also collapse. This effect was seen in the collapse of the World Trade Center in New York City, although this collapse was not a result of the initial explosion. Had the towers not collapsed, it is estimated that close to half of the deaths could have been prevented (Dwyer). It is therefore vitally important for buildings that suffer damage from explosions to remain structurally stable for as long as
Building description Pressure (psi) Damage description

Steel frame–metal building 1.25
1.50

2.50

5.00 Metal siding anchorage failure
Sheeting torn off and internal walls damaged. Danger from falling objects
Building stands, but cladding and internal walls destroyed as frames distort
Building completely destroyed
Unreinforced masonry bearing wall system 1.00
1.25
1.50
3.00 Partial collapse of walls that have no fenestrations
Walls and roof partially collapse
Complete collapse
Building completely destroyed
Steel or...

Find Another Essay On Protecting Against Terrorist Attacks in Urban Environments: Explosion Protection for Buildings

In what ways, if any, did the world change in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Centre and the Pentagon on 11th September 2001?

2622 words - 10 pages In what ways, if any, did the world change in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Centre and the Pentagon on 11th September 2001?IntroductionSeptember 11, 2001 is a day that can be remembered as the day that shocked not only the United States but the world as a whole. For many people around the globe this day can be remembered as a horrifying and catastrophic experience regardless of whether or not they were directly

The Extent of Protection for Women Against Male Violence by the State

3043 words - 12 pages DISCUSS THE EXTENT OF PROTECTION FOR WOMEN AGAINST MALE VIOLENCE BY THE STATE. For this essay I am going to look at Domestic Violence against women and what the State is doing to protect them. Domestic Violence is now a well-known global occurrence affecting not only women but also their children too. Violence against woman has been around since the dawn of time. We have all seen cartoon pictures of the caveman dragging his mate behind him

Protection Against a Failure to Act in an Administrative Proceeding in Czech Republic

1434 words - 6 pages ;m) of administrative persons or an administrative act, has the legal right to apply with a complaint to the administrative body. This possibility he only has in the case, in which the administrative regulation doesn´t give another right to appeal for this affair. The complaint is espacially invalid, if:- the right of appeal (revocation, objection as regulated one or non-regulated like lawful decisions)- institut of protection against

How is Rural-Urban Migration Shaping the Provision of Care for Older People in Urban China

1386 words - 6 pages Intrigued by Global Care Chain theory and the shifts of elderly care under the national rural-urban migration trend, this study aims to explore the role of rural migrants in the elderly care labour market in urban China. In the background section, the starting point of Global Care Chain will be followed by the status of elderly care and rural-urban migration contributions in China. Considering methods, this study collects secondary data for

Terrorism- A Cause and Effect? Deals with motives of September 11, 2001 attacks on the WTC and Pentagon, looking at history of Al-Qaeda and terrorist development since the Soviet invasion of...

948 words - 4 pages , but it affected politics, public opinion, and the perception of the United States' strength. Yet another time, a world superpower with seemingly irrefutable strength is denied by a strong, but motivated force, technologically outgunned.So how do these tie in with the motives for 9/11? Well, as Al-Qaeda was gaining traction in the middle east with their various attacks over the years, they were also gradually getting more and more angry at

Euthanasia: For, Against, or In The Middle

1836 words - 8 pages murder (killing) and is punishable by law with a maximum penalty of up to life imprisonment. Pro-lifers and Pro-quality of lifers are absolutist in their commitments. Absolutist party positions are either for life at all cost or they want quality of life. If they cannot have quality of life then they chose death. The first party would say that the medical profession is in the fight for life against death. That no physician or society has

Reported Career Aspirations for Children With IEPs by Parents in STEM Focused and Non-STEM Focused Academic Environments

1598 words - 6 pages schools and non-STEM focused schools. Possible Research Questions 1. What are the career aspirations of parents for their children who are served by special education in STEM focused vs. non-STEM focused academic environments? 2. Do parents’ career aspirations for children with disabilities include STEM professions and are these goals supported by STEM focused IEP goals. 3. Do parental career expectations differ by disability, gender

Fire Arms on Campus: Ban for Less Violence, or Legalize in Sense of Protection?

2190 words - 9 pages trustworthy students and staff members, could result in less violence and more safety and protection for anyone willing to go through the process. Works Cited Campisi, Jon. “Open-Carry Experiment Shows Cops Don’t Know Their Gun Laws.” Philadelphia Weekly. Philadelphia Weekly, 17 May. 2011. Web. 8 Mar. 2014. CNN. “Guns on Campus?” CNN. CNN. 22 Feb. 2011. Web. 8 Mar. 2014. CNN. “Let professors carry guns on campus?”. CNN. CNN. 18 Jan. 2011. 8 Mar

Use of Yoga in an Urban School for Children With Emotional Behavioral Disorders

980 words - 4 pages students’ schools schedules; along with this, it was to help improve attention levels in the classroom and behaviors in the school and home environments. Sample Participants of the study included 74 students with emotional and behavior disorders, the students were all from an urban elementary school’s fourth and fifth grade class (ages 8-11). The student had to be able to comprehend English well enough to do written reports and understand verbal

The Impact of Rural-Urban Migration on the Provision of Care for Older People in China

2421 words - 10 pages for quantitative analysis, while conducts interviews for thematic analysis in the case field of Shanghai. The anticipated outcomes section consists of literature implication on China Care Chain, practice implication for elderly care in both rural and urban areas, and policy implication. 1. Background Global Care Chain (GCC) focuses on the mechanism of global reproduction, care services internationalisation, and care labour migration (Yeates

WILLINGNESS TO PAY FOR IMPROVEMENTS IN WATER QUALITY: A CASE STUDY OF BLANTYRE URBAN

1564 words - 7 pages In Malawi the major sources of water for both domestic and industrial use include lakes, rivers and ground water. Ground water is dependable for supplying water in rural areas and also in some urban areas even though this source of water is most common in the rural areas. In some urban areas, the major source of water are rivers. According to Government of Malawi (2010), many river basins are under severe pressure resulting from deforestation

Similar Essays

Terrorist Attacks In Russia Essay

1055 words - 5 pages Who? Currently, the police and government have a broad variety of who the terrorist attacks could be coming from. The top suspect right now is a so called “black widow” named Ruzanna Ibragimova. She is twenty two years old and a widow to a former terrorist who died in a previous attack. The group of “black widows” she is claimed to be part of are all widows of former terrorists. They are trained to follow their husband’s footsteps and get

Defense Against Collaborative Attacks In Manet

1731 words - 7 pages -mail can be used for file transfer and it also used in multimedia applications. It is also used in disaster recovery such as earthquake, tsunamis etc. In MANET, the nodes are free to move, it will change its connection to other devices frequently. An important issue in MANET is routing between two nodes, due to the changing topology of the network. The routing protocol should be secure to protocol to protect against network attacks such as Black

Law Enforcement Innovations In Reaction To The 9/11 Terrorist Attacks And The Virginia Tech Massacre

1112 words - 4 pages The terrorist attacks to the World Trade Center towers in New York City on September 11, 2001 has changed the way federal, state and local police departments communicate with each other, their structures, and operations. The new federal organization known as Homeland Security set out to coordinate their work at the state level, collect, analyze and share pertinent information and intelligence, protect key infrastructure and assets, secure the

Problems And Solutions In The Fight Against Urban Poverty

4430 words - 18 pages Problems and solutions in the fight against urban poverty Introduction – the advent of capitalism and the resultant economic inequality There can be no talk of modern poverty without talking first of capitalism, and as such, the capitalist model of production and the exploitation of labor is where I will begin my paper. Capitalism evolved from the feudal system, which was incorporated into western European societies hundreds of years ago