Proteomics Techniques Overview Essay

3278 words - 13 pages

AbstractProteomic techniques reviewed in this paper looks into how proteomics grew and came into existence, from basic protein chemistry to high through put technologies. We also look into draw backs that come with it and also look into their possible solution. And how advances in methods and technologies have expanded our understanding of biological systems better. Finally we talk about how each technique can be used in relevance to the experiment we are trying to carry out.Proteome constitute the complete profile of proteins expressed in a given tissue, cell or an organism at a given point of time. Proteomics – the science and proteomic techniques was the direct result of mapping and sequencing projects. The goal then was the rapid identification of all the proteins that a cell or tissue could express[1, 2] using all the techniques possible under the sun. The most common problem faced with the above was the dynamic range that the quantification methods needed to cover[3]. Proteins vary in concentrations and the more realistic goal was the determination of diverse properties of proteins, identification and quantification.Proteomic techniques for the rapid identification and quantification of proteins have been and are still being developed as we speak. There no single hard and fast rule as of date, no such mature technology in proteomic techniques exists.In this review we shall come across proteomic techniques and its current status while comparing the similarities in techniques of the past to now. And also explore the advancements in the techniques and there by distinguish the new from the old fashioned, ways of get things doneResearch way back in the 80’s on proteins was based on crude understanding of protein chemistry. The approach was observation of the phenotype or function to the genes responsible for the function and latter on the identification of products that manifested the observed phenotype. This approach came to be known as ‘forward’ approach. With the advent of large scale sequencing projects the approach changed and it was now ‘reverse approach’. It looked at gene sequencing to function and phenotype. These approaches used techniques such as expression arrays or serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE)[4, 5]. The above techniques pioneered the development of more global approaches to the quantitative analysis of proteins expression by high resolution two dimensional gel electrophoresis or ‘2DE’[6, 7].Studies in the early 90’s on DNA sequencing gave us the complete genome sequence libraries of many model organisms such as yeast[8] and latter on human[9, 10]. With these complete libraries in hand; rapid identification was matter of extracting the sequence information from proteins and peptides followed by correlating it to the databases. This paved the entry of mass spectrometric techniques and the use of database search algorithms.Mass spectrometers were the tool house of analytical...

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