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Proton Therapy For Tumors Essay

2830 words - 11 pages

Cancer is the form of disease, when abnormal cells divide uncontrolledly and invade other tissues. Cancer is not one type of disease because there are more than 100 types of the cancer spread in the world ( National Cancer Institute 2013). Every third person in the world has a cancer. Based on statistics, in the USA in 2013 the cancer was a cause of death for 580,350 people ( The American Cancer Society 2013). The aim of this project is to evaluate all aspects of proton therapy. It will be argued that proton therapy is the most effective treatment for cancer conventional treatments. The most established types of cancer treatment such as chemical therapy or chemotherapy and surgery will be discussed. The proton therapy as a contemporary type of radiation oncology, which is used in only a few countries, will be analyzed as a possible replacement. In this essay advantages of proton beam therapy such as cosmetic purity of a skin, efficiency and radiation will be discussув. Furthermore, in this paper will be evaluated the cost and risk of death, which can be reached by unprecise planning, of the proton beam therapy. Additionally, will be surveyed the results of the proton therapy such as treatment for earlier incurable types of cancer and possible discussed about future improvements.
The method to use protons such as medical treatment of cancer was proposed by Robert Whilson, who was fade American physicist, in 1946 (McDonald and Fitzek 2010, 257). He argued that the unique physical properties of protons are relevant to utilize this radiation techology in medicine. The principle of the proton beam therapy consists in the appreciable mass of protons than other particles; as a result, the beam slightly broaden and stays focused on the cancer cells without any injures on the surrounding tissue ( Dinesh Mayani 2011, 186). The protons destroy DNA of cancer cells in the tissue to prevent cancer. To accelerate the protons and other heavy particles in radiation oncology use a cyclotron. The cyclotron or synchrotron is a type of particle accelerators, which used for achievement of high energy of particles ( Karamysheva et al. 2011, 106). The equipment of proton beam therapy is the complex of different mechanisms. The protons accelerates in the vacuum of cyclotron and they are transformed to narrow beam, which exits the vacuum into nozzle (McDonald and Fitzek 2010). Via wobbling magnet the proton beam cover a wider area and range of filters with varied thickness regulate this beam to achieve a spectrum of beam energies with their Bragg Peak. The moment, when particles emit the highest energy before they will stopped, is called the Bragg Peak ( Khan and Gerbi 2012). According to McDonald and Fitzek(2010), an inline x-ray source moves round the patient to take images for setup, then the size of a proton field is limited by X and Y jaws and stray protons scattered by the range of filters are blocked. Ionisation chambers accurately measure the amount of...

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