Pseudomonas Corrugata: Pith Necrosis Of Tomato

1329 words - 5 pages

ABIS encyclopedia defines Pseudomonas corrugata as a gram-negative aerobic rod and cocci, and has an optimal growth temperature of 26 degree Celsius. AgroAtlas, describe that P. corrugata belongs to prokaryotic kingdom. Also, AgroAtlas wrote that P. corrugata quickly grows in nutrient medium. According to AgroAtlas, P. corrugata does not produce a fluorescent pigment on King B medium. This organism dilute gelatin (but not all strains). Starch and 1-arginine are not hydrolyzed by this organism. Oxidase and lecithinase reactions have a positive result. P. corrugata produce acid from “galactose, glucose, xylose, mannose, ribose, trehalose, saccharose, fructose, glycerin, inositol, mannitol, but this organism does not produce acid from lactose, maltose, ramnose, sorbitol, adonitol, dextrin, dulcitol, and cellobiose. According to Vittoria Catara, an author of the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, P. corrugata is an ubiquitous bacterium, and was first described as being responsible for tomato pith necrosis. O.M. Martins, author of German Phytomedical Society, said “In 1989, an outbreak of the disease occurred in the States of Rio Grande do Sul. The symptoms were seen during the flowering and fruiting stages, and losses in protected tomato reached 40%.” He also wrote that plants along the irrigation channels gained a dark-brown and water-soaked necrosis in their stem, followed by complete destruction of the pith. He said that none of the infected plants survived; instead, they all wilted and died in a few days. Plantwise, an organization that aims to improve the food in the security and the lives of the rural poor by reducing crop losses, stated that the first symptom of pith necrosis is a chlorosis of the youngest leaves, usually on plants where the fist fruit set is close to maturity. Plantwise published that the Chlorosis may intensify and affect the top of the plant, which loses turgidity. The whole plant collapses. A dark-brown to black lesion is seen on the surface of these plants where the first truss is attached, sometimes extending up to 30 centimeters in length. When the stem is split, the pith is dark-brown and water-soaked but not soft. The leading edge of the pith discoloration is usually well-defined. When the necrosis advances in pith, the vascular system of the plant will be affected and turn brown. The pith necrosis and the discoloration can extend throughout the stem from the soil level to just below growing point, onto the peduncles and into leaf rachides. Sometimes, and particularly in plants without external lesion, the pith merely discolored with or without cavities in the discolored area. In older crops, plants that have been affected can be recognized by the prolific development of adventitious roots on the stem in an area where the pith is affected. After initial symptoms, surviving plants may grow normally without any further external or internal symptom development. When plants have recovered...

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