Psihologia Copilului Essay

7018 words - 28 pages

FACTORII DEZVOLTĂRII PSIHICE A COPILULUI1. CUM TREBUIE PRIVITĂ PROBLEMA FACTORILORDEZVOLTĂRII PSIHICEFoarte ascuţită a fost şi este discuţia şi controversa ştiinţifică cu privire la stabilirea factorilor mai importanţi responsabili de dezvoltarea psihosomatică a copilului. Aceşti factori se pot grupa în trei categorii: factorii ereditari, factorii de mediu şi factorii de educaţie.Adeseori s-a absolutizat rolul unuia sau al altuia dintre aceşti factori, cu tendinţe de ignorare a celorlalţi, s-a considerat uneori ca având fiecare dintre ei (sau măcar ereditatea şi mediul) acţiuni paralele.Ne interesează însă mai puţin istoria acestor controverse. Noi urmărim mai ales acumularea de material ştiinţific privind valoarea reală ce se poate atribui influenţei fiecăruia dintre factorii enumeraţi. Dezvoltarea psihică se realizează în cadrul vieţii sociale sub influenţa unor cerinţe puternice de adaptare la aceasta.Rolul eredităţii şi al mediului este foarte însemnat în dezvoltarea psihică. Totuşi, acţiunea educaţiei asupra dezvoltării psihice a copilului este hotărâtoare. Educaţia, această" acţiune sociala exercitată în mod activ, cu finalităţi evident formative, are o importantă funcţie de a cre?a la copil un profil intelectual, moral, cultural, o personalitate care să conserve şi să dezvolte valorile de care dispune societatea.De aceea, educaţia este factorul esenţial, factorul de bază al dezvoltării psihice. Însuşi procesul educaţiei poartă o amprentă specifică, fiind în esenţă determinat social-istoric v. Marx K., Engels F. Despre educaţie și învățământ, Bucureşti, Editura didactică şi pedagogică, 1960..Ca să înţelegem mai profund esenţa fiecărui factor în parte va trebui să ne referim şi să analizăm separat rolul lor în dezvoltarea psihică a copilului.Ereditate şi genetică. G. Mendel a surprins pentru prima dată (1865) unele caracteristici legice ale transmisiei ereditare de la o generaţie la alta. Cercetările sale au trecut neobservate pâna în 1900, când au fost puse în evidenţă şi verificate, în mod simultan, de. către H. de Vries (Olanda), C. Correns (Germania), E von Tschermak (Austria). Secolul al XX-lea a însemnat înce­putul experienţelor cu privire la ereditate în biologie În anul 1963, în cadrul Academiei, a avut loc o sesiune ştiinţifică consacrată proble­melor de genetică.. Pioneri în...

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