1. Briefly describe the stages in language development.
Language development involves in 5 stages. Firstly, language development will start when the babies are at the age of 3-5 weeks. At this stage, babies usually start “cooing or doing repetition of vowel sound”. The most common vowel sound repetition is “oooh” and “aaah”. Then, babies will start to develop the second stage of language development at the age of 4-6 months. At this stage, babies will start to babble or doing repetition of vowel and consonant combination. Based on the textbook, both cooing at stage 1 as well as babbling at stage 2 are “vocalization milestones that occur before formal language development. At the third stage, which occurs when the babies are at the age of 6-18 months, they will be more certain to the native language. Usually, babies will have their first word spoken at this stage. Next, at the age of 24 months, babies will experience their fourth stage of language development, where, they will be able to grab at least 200 words and have the skill to grammatically combine two words. At the last stage, which is at the age of preschool years, babies which have turn into toddlers will have the ‘ability to produce and comprehend sentences’ as well as show features of adult syntax.
2. Describe language in non human species.
In the textbook, non human species are described by an example of Allen Gardner and Beatrice Gardner who tried to teach a simplified form of American Sign Language to a chimp named Washoe. When the chimpanzee was at age of 4 years old, it was able to understand more than 160 appropriate signs that was taught. However, based on the textbook, experiments have proved that chimps can have the capability to learn these language skills only by observing other chimps and do not necessarily need to be taught or trained by human.
Chimpanzees, as stated in the textbook, “have not evolved to understand or produce human language,” and they only “evolved to solve their own problems, that arise from their own unique environment”. However, language is an adaption and it evolved as a result of natural selection. This is why it is reasonable for us to wonder why non human species can develop language.
3. Describe and evaluate the IQ test. Is it a good measure or intelligence? Why or why not?
Based on the textbook, IQ test is developed by psychologists named Binet and Simon. Their goal of creating IQ test is basically to determine the mental age of a child which was defined as the ‘chronological age that best fit the child’s current level of intellectual performance’. Usually, mental age is calculated by comparing a child’s test score with the average scores for different age group. As explained by the example in the textbook, an average of 8 year old should be able to compare two objects from memory, recognize parts of a picture that are missing, count backward from 20 to 0, and give the correct day and time. However for children of 12...