Psychiatric Disorders, Diseases, And Drugs Essay

1027 words - 4 pages

Psychiatric Disorders, Diseases, and DrugsPsychiatric disorders are devastating disorders that often leave a person unable to lead an ordinary life. In this paper, you will learn about schizophrenia, depression, mania, anxiety disorder, and Tourette Syndrome, and any treatment through medication that helps a patient live normally with the disorder. Causes for these mental disorders and treatments for are paving the way for normalcy for those who suffer.SchizophreniaSchizophrenia is a mental disorder in which a one may hear voices, have delusions, or have extreme paranoid. Schizophrenia has three main subtypes: the disorganized type, the paranoid type, and the catatonic type. In the disorganized type, one will hallucinate, speak to unreal voices, and undisturbed about bad hygiene or cleanliness. In the paranoid type, one will think everyone is out to get them, thinks something terrible will occur, and has distrust in everyone. In the catatonic type, one will 'freeze' their body in a certain pose and are able to continue in that position for long periods of time (Comer, 2002).TheoriesTwo theories are genetic factors and dopamine hypothesis. Genetic factors are one of the main theories researched for schizophrenia. Individuals inherit a biological inclination to schizophrenia, and the psychological disorder appears when faced with extreme stress in life. A study on relatives of individuals with schizophrenia has shown that genetic factors are possible. An example given is that of a child of two schizophrenic parents has a 45% chance of developing the disorder, and an identical twin holds a 48% chance (Pinel, 2007).Dopamine hypothesis was discovered when antipsychotic drugs started causing muscular tremors-identical to Parkinson's disease. Researchers theorized that schizophrenia results from excessive activity of the neurotransmitter dopamine, because antipsychotic drugs remove symptoms of schizophrenia, yet cause certain muscular problems (Pinel, 2007).TreatmentTreatment for schizophrenia is with antipsychotic medications and various forms of therapy. The antipsychotic medications show to have the best results due to the significantly reduced symptoms; although, there are side effects to the medications which cause some patients to discontinue the medications. Therapies are most effective when combined with antipsychotic medication, and useful forms of therapy are: social therapy, family therapy, and insight therapy.Depression and ManiaIn depression, the biopsychosocial form suggests it is a mixture of biological, psychological, and social factors contributing to this disorder. In addition, depression patients who go through manic periods in which their moods go from one extreme to the next experience mania. Typically, when patients illustrate such extremes in depression and mania, they are diagnosed with bipolar disorderTheoriesIn biological studies, it is thought that a reduction in serotonin activity causes the brain to operate unusually....

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