Psychoanalytic, Neoanalytic, Jungian, And Individual Psychology Theory

1058 words - 4 pages

Psychoanalytic, Neoanalytic, Jungian, and Individual Psychology TheoryNowadays, people begin to understand that the knowledge of human psychology plays a great role in the everyday life. It means that basic understanding of different psychological concepts gives a key to the apprehension of the inner world of every person. Today, there are many theories that help to determine the personality of every client and find solutions for every problem.One of such theories is the psychoanalysis. It lies in the researches of the human minds and the principles of its working. Main theorists, S. Freud and J. Breuer, emphasized the role of the childhood memories in explaining of different fears and psychological problems of the clients. In fact, S. Freud singled out three components of a human mind. They are id, ego, and superego. The Id is that part of the personality, on which the instinctual drives and needs have a great impact. This aspect is very unstable and dynamic. In other words, it is unmanageable as it is ready to satisfy all demands and avoid pain and problems in any way. Therefore, there is the other element called ego. It deals with the realistic purposes and tries to slow down the impulsiveness of the id. Ego balances between the instinctive drives and realistic principles trying to achieve as many benefits as possible. However, there is a third element superego. It deals with the morality principles. In fact, superego makes instinctive needs and drives reflect in the socially accepted ways. Morality principles and social laws limit the individual's desires to satisfy basic needs (Masling, 1990).The other basic key term of this theory is the concept of unconscious. Individuals are not aware of the existence of this aspect of personality. However, it rules human's emotions, feelings, thoughts, and deeds. The exploration of the unconscious gives reasons of different psychological problems of the clients. From this point of view, psychoanalysts based their therapy. Therapists usually use such methods of researches as free association, dream analysis, and even hypnosis. These ways help to reveal the reason for any psychological disorders. The role of the patients remains rather passive. Their task is to recollect different memories and dreams from their childhood, which had a great impact on them.Among the advantages of the psychoanalytical theory, one can name its possibility to uncover psychological problems with the help of the childhood memories and events. Moreover, it explained the role of the unconscious in the personality structure. In addition, this theory helped to reveal the defense mechanisms, which explain why individuals behave differently in the similar situations. However, the theory pays no attention to the role of the surroundings, culture, and the social background of the clients. It is also more concerned about the treatment of pathologies rather than minor deviations.Psychoanalytical theory had a great impact on the further...

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