RAD is one of the least researched disorders in DSM and it difficult to diagnose accurately (Chaffin et al, 2006). There is also difficulty in distinguishing between consequences of maltreatment, disorganized attachment and attachment disorder (Prior & Glaser, 2006). In the United Kingdom, according to British Association for Adoption and Fostering (BAAF), only psychiatrists can diagnose RAD and any assessment regarding RAD must include a comprehensive evaluation of child’s family history and individual history (BAAF, 2006). There are other disorders that share many symptoms with RAD and they are often co-morbid or confused by RAD, such as anxiety disorder, Post Traumatic Syndrome Disorder (PTSD), social phobia and conduct disorder (Sadock, 2004).
The developmental psychopathology models which are going to be evaluated in this essay are: psychodynamic model and the family systemic model.
Psychodynamic model was developed by Sigmund Freud to describe the process of mind as flows of libido (psychological energy) in brain (Bowlby, 1999). In Psychology, Psychodynamics is the study of the inter-relationship between several areas of the mind, personality, or psyche, as they relate to mental, emotional or motivational focuses, emphasising on the dynamism of unconsciousness (Freud, 1923; Hall, 1954). Psychodynamics, basically, focuses on the formation of psychic energy (Hall, 1954) and its distribution over the human system and development by the virtue of interaction among ‘id’, ‘ego’ and ‘superego’ (Freud, 1923). Some of the key believes of psychodynamic are discussed here.
Firstly, Freud believed that the mind is like an iceberg (Freud, 1953) , mostly hidden, and that free association would ultimately let a patient retrieve memories from the unconscious, memories not ordinarily available because they are threatening in some ways for the person. Conscious awareness (the visible part of the iceberg) floats above the surface. The preconscious (the area only shallowly submerged) contains information which can voluntarily be brought to awareness. The unconscious (the larger, deeply submerged portion of the iceberg) contains thoughts, feelings, and memories of which a person is unaware and many of which have been repressed from consciousness. In summary, in psychodynamic model there is an emphasis on the centrality of unconscious conflict and their relation in development (Sundberg, 2001).
Secondly, during a child's development, the ego strategically uses defence mechanisms to deal with the anxiety produced by conflicting impulses from the id (operating on the pleasure principle) and the superego, using internalized representation of the parents' value system (Fonagy et al, 1996). These defence mechanisms are developing in order to avoid unpleasant consequences of conflict.
Thirdly, another key component of psychodynamic is psychopathology, which is resulted if an individual does not pass through the stages of...