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Psychological Abnormality Essay

976 words - 4 pages

Psychological AbnormalityDefining abnormalityWhat is abnormal psychology?The distinction between 'normal' and 'abnormal' behaviour is not clear-cut.Psychologists have tried to define abnormality in several different ways.Limitations of definitions of abnormality are: Statistical Infrequency: Does not account for social acceptability or type of behaviour. For example, very high intelligence is abnormal because it is rare. Also, eccentric behaviour that is rare but acceptable is also abnormal.Deviation from Social Norms: Social norms vary from one society to another and standards change. For example, in our society, it used to be considered far more abnormal to be an unmarried mother than it is now.Failure to Function Adequately: Apart from social dysfunction, this also includes being in a disabling state of distress. Problems include the fact that some mental disorders do not cause distress and that sometimes it is normal to be distressed. Withdrawal from society may be mental disorder, but not necessarily. Deviation from Ideal Mental Health: The standards for ideal mental health are generally difficult to measure and so demanding that most people fail to meet them anyway!Cultural relativism: Some disorders are specific to some cultures, or found in some populations more than others. It is difficult to say whether the disorders are really less common amongst some people, possibly for genetic reasons, or whether there are differences in diagnosis.For example: British African-Caribbean people are far more likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia than other members of the population, the reasons could be genetic, to do with social conditions and stress, or bias and prejudice in the medical system.Biological and psychological models of abnormalityDifferent Models: assumptions and treatmentsBiological (medical)Physical causes, (genetics, biochemistry)Somatic - drugsPsychodynamic(psychoanalytical)Unresolved emotional conflicts in early life, now repressed.Talking to bring out and work through unconscious conflicts.BehaviouralAbnormal behaviour is learned by association and reinforcementFocus on learning new responses to situationsCognitiveFaulty thinking distorts perception of thingsChallenging the way a person sees themselvesEating DisordersIntroduction - some misconceptionsIt is important to realise that stringent dieting plays a key role in problems of this nature but eating disorders are not simply cases of dieting that has become out of control. Eating disorders are not just about trying to live up to media images of attractiveness, though social pressure to be thin may be a key factor.Eating disorders can easily arise out of a response to distress and worries about areas of life other than body image or dieting.Food is only part of the story.Eating disorders are complex and can be life-threatening illnesses. They involve biological and psychological factors.Clinical symptoms of Anorexia NervosaAt least 15% below normal body weightPerson sees...

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