Psychological Properties Of Ya Essay

2215 words - 9 pages

Beyond Boredom:
Studies on the physical and psychological properties of yawning

The act of yawning has been observed in all vertebrates, and occurs in humans as early as minutes after birth, so it must have some definitive physiological purpose. Until recently, most scientists believed yawning was a respiratory function, triggered by a surplus of carbon dioxide in the bloodstream. In the past decade, however, studies have suggested that yawning acts as a mediator of activity and arousal levels. The evaluation that follows will examine three such studies and the evidence they contribute to this hypothesis.
     The first study (1) examined the connection between yawning and activity on a physical level. Previous research had drawn loose ties between arousal and yawning; for example, one study showed that yawning in rats increased with the presence of a penile erection. To show that arousal increases with the onset of a yawn, the authors of this study designed a correlational experiment to measure changes in physical indicators of arousal before, during, and after yawning. They predicted that signs of arousal would increase when the yawn started.
A mixed-gender group of 30 college students participated in three 15-minute laboratory trials which measured skin conductance and heart rate, two physical correlates of arousal. In each trial, subjects pressed a button when they felt a yawn coming on, and equipment in a nearby room took readings from sensors attached to their fingertips. The first trial measured skin conductance, the second trial measured heart rate, and the third trial used an electromyogram with electrodes attached to the subjects’ masseter muscles to verify that they were yawning when they said they were. Each subject was alone in a room for the course of all three trials. In addition, a control group of 20 students were tested for skin conductance and heart rate while intentionally performing different physical aspects of yawning, such as opening the mouth wide and taking deep breaths. All results were analyzed using a Friedman ANOVA test.
The results of the experiment partailly concur with the authors’ prediction. In the experimental group, it was found that skin conductance values during and after the first yawn were significantly higher than before the yawn. For each subsequent yawn, the difference between pre-yawn and post-yawn values decreased. In other words, once the skin conductance values rose with the initial yawn, they remained consistently high through the rest of the trial. However, no significant change in heart rate was measured during the subjects’ initial yawns, and no effects became apparent with successive yawns. Interestingly enough, the control group provided very similar data. The results showed that during both the opening-mouth and deep breathing trials, control subjects experienced an initial increase in skin conductance with the first yawnlike action...

Find Another Essay On Psychological Properties Of Ya

Arguments Given by David Chalmers for Rejecting a Materialistic Account of Consciousness in His Book

5853 words - 23 pages old mind-body problem with a new set of concepts to consider. One of the most important of these in recent debate about consciousness is that of supervenience. Supervenience can be understood on many levels. Basically, it describes a dependence relation between two sets of properties. A set of higher level properties supervenes on a set of lower level properties if the higher level properties depend upon the lower level properties. Chalmers

A Beat to Freedom Essay

1185 words - 5 pages utterly wishing you were the girl Edwin Mccain was singing to in I’ll be? Sacher and Eversole in 1971 made an assumption as to why we feel these kind of things when we suddenly hear a particular music. Sacher and Eversole stated that Music is composed of strong and psychological forces. Like all the other forms of art, Music stimulates emotions and the psychological force of Music deals with the emotion as well. A person who is feeling

The Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test

775 words - 3 pages Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (Hays, Reas, & Shaw, 2002), but costs only approximately one-third of the latter, such a feature makes the KBIT-2 a promising pre-employment screening tool for any organization with a need to accurately assess prospective employees’ cognitive abilities. IV. Psychometric Properties As the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test is designed for individuals from 4 to 90 years of age, it exhibits slightly different

What´s lysergic acid diethylamide?

604 words - 3 pages LSD is short for lysergic acid diethylamide.LSD is a hallucinogenic drug. It alters your thoughts and your perception of reality. It was invented by Albert Hofmann on November 16, 1938 in Sandoz laboratories in Basle, Switzerland. Albert thought it could be used as a circulatory and respiratory stimulant, but in 1943 he discovered LSD had very strong hallucinogenic properties. LSD disrupts how your nerve cells and the neurotransmitter

To Resurrect a Ghost

3167 words - 13 pages physical is just as incredible as existence of the metaphysical. Free will is also inconceivable without the assumption of a metaphysical self, it being the ‘ghost in the machine’ after all. As for consciousness, it is presupposed by the empirical. What counts as physical manifestations of mind are the effects or causes of phenomenal experience. Without this criterion the individual is a unity, it being impossible to separate the psychological

Antibacterial activity of honey on Staphylococcus aureus: Raw versus Processed (store bought) honey

2449 words - 10 pages Introduction In recent years the need to have relatively good health has become desirable among the U.S. population. The desire to have a clean slate and become a new and improved person has crept into minds all over the nation. Consumers want products that can prevent illnesses and diseases, encourage good health and increase their general well being of the individual, such as, functional foods. A review study of the functional properties of

Marijuana Legislation: Marijuana Should Be Legalized

1302 words - 5 pages highly addictive drug; cannabis is a medicinal plant that should be legalized. With this is mind, marijuana also has many useful medicinal properties. Marijuana’s special healing properties have been recognized by a number of doctors and studies performed. For instance, Mitchell Earleywine, who has a Ph.D in psychology, explains: “Smoked cannabis clearly helps some problems and may cost less than other medications. Synthetic cannabinoids can also


1221 words - 5 pages War can destroy any person both in body and mind for the rest of their life. In "Shot by Sniper," by Bartholomew von Klick suggests the horror of war not only by presenting its physical dangers, but also by showing its psychological effects. In the story “Shot by Sniper” Klick shows and relates real life experiences of war. In this story Klick shows how location plays a big part in how physically dangerous war is. In the beginning of the story

Discourse on Metaphysics by Leibniz

848 words - 3 pages Discourse on Metaphysics by Leibniz In the Discourse on Metaphysics by Leibniz he suggest that, "we maintain that everything that is to happen to some person is already contained virtually in his nature or notion, as properties of a circle are contained in its definition." This assertion raised a difficulty for Leibniz. This difficulty was that "human freedom will no longer hold, and that an absolute fatality would rule over all our

Legalizing Marijuana

1095 words - 4 pages factors for abusing more dangerous substances, and implicate both community health and community stability. Human psychological factors that are risk factors for substance abuse disorders, such as low self-esteem, would not allow people to consume marijuana in moderation or with health-oriented goals, so it would cause negative health outcomes in the community. Marijuana should not be legalized because excessive consumption of marijuana can

Linguistic Contributions to the Study of Mind

3521 words - 14 pages in an interesting way by Karl Popper in his recently published Arthur Compton Lecture, "Clouds and Clocks." A more explicit discussion of the relation between human language and animal communication systems appears in a recent discussion by the comparative ethologist W. H. Thorpe. Thorpe does not suggest that human language "evolved" in any strict sense from simpler systems, but he does argue that the characteristic properties of human language

Similar Essays

Psychological Contract Essay

948 words - 4 pages . (2011) Making sense of psychological contract breach, Journal of Managerial Psychological, 26(1), 12-27 Parzefall, M-R. & Hakanen, J. (2010) Psychological contract and its motivational and health-enhancing properties, Journal of Managerial Psychological, 25(1), 4-21 Raja, U.; Johns, G.; Ntalianis, F. (2004) The impacts of personality on psychological contracts, Academy of Management Journal, 47(3), 350-367 Seeck, H. & Parzefall, M-R. (2008

Fasdfasd Essay

909 words - 4 pages “open” because it does not follow that ‘unmarried man’ is synonymous with ‘bachelor.’ Additionally, analytical naturalism refers to the internal psychological states of a given speaker when they utter a specific term (semantic internalism). So, speakers may express one property instead of another using a term even when the concept that speaker attaches to it does not differentiate between two properties. For example, we take Molly to speak falsely

Censorship In Society Essay

1158 words - 5 pages The 1950’s novel the Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger has caused quite a controversy ever since the book’s publishing date. It is known as one of the greatest pieces of literature in American history but it is also known for its profanity, sexual content and psychological instability. The main character, Holden Caufield is a reckless teenager that is seeking adventure in the streets of New York City after he flunks out of his prep school

Crooks' Transformation In John Steninbeck's Of Mice And Men

1735 words - 7 pages extremely lonely - a life of quiet desperation. To begin with, Steinbeck describes Crooks as "a proud, aloof man. He kept his distance and demanded that other people keep theirs (67). Perhaps this desire to keep apart is merely a psychological trick he has played on himself, as if he wanted to be left always alone? In any case, the story continues with Steinbeck introducing Lennie into Crook's world: "Noiselessly Lennie appeared in the open doorway